Hepatitis A Basic Information
- More than 30 states have been affected by hepatitis A outbreaks since 2016.
- The outbreaks are occurring mostly among people who use drugs and people who are homeless.
- There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents hepatitis A and all people with substance use disorder and people who are homeless should receive the two-dose vaccine series.
What Is Hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A can be transmitted when a person ingests the virus from food, drinks, or other objects that have been contaminated by small amounts of stool from an infected person. This can happen through unwashed hands when an infected person prepares food, by close personal contact such as during sex, or caring for someone who is ill. HAV is highly contagious and can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to severe illness lasting several months. Unlike hepatitis B and C, HAV does not cause a long-term, chronic liver infection. Although most people who get hepatitis A are only sick for a few weeks, in rare cases, HAV can cause liver failure and death. This is more common in individuals with existing liver disease and other illnesses often seen in homeless persons.
Most children under 6 years of age do not have symptoms when they get hepatitis A. Older children and adults will usually have symptoms. The symptoms will generally clear-up within 2 months of infection and may include:
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach pain
Once a person becomes infected with HAV, the person develops antibodies that protect from getting the virus again. The best way to prevent HAV is by getting vaccinated.
How Many People Have Hepatitis A?
Since the release of the first vaccine in 1995, HAV infections in the United States have declined by more than 95%. From 2012 through 2016, HAV infections fluctuated because large foodborne outbreaks occurred. From 2016, through 2019 30 states reported HAV outbreaks spread through person to person contact resulting in close to 30,000 infections with high numbers of hospitalizations and deaths.
Globally, HAV is most common in countries with poor sanitary conditions and hygienic practices and transitional economies according to the World Health Organization.
Who Is Most Affected?
Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can get HAV. The most common risk factors among people with new HAV infections include: 1) coming in direct contact with persons who have HAV; 2) traveling to countries where HAV infection is more common; 3) drug use (injection and non-injection); 4) homelessness and 5) having sex with an infected person.
For countries where HAV infection is common, the risk factors are poor sanitation and lack of clean, safe drinking water.
How Is Hepatitis A Transmitted?
HAV is highly contagious. It is spread primarily when a person ingests the virus from food, drinks, or objects that have been contaminated by small amounts of stool from an infected person; sex with an infected person, particularly if it involves anal-oral contact; and through injection drug use. In crowded, unsanitary conditions, HAV can be spread quickly and cause outbreaks by exposure to contaminated water or food (such as eating raw shellfish from water polluted with sewage).
Hepatitis A Prevention
Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable disease. The hepatitis A vaccine is safe and effective and is usually given in 2 shots with a booster dose six months following the first. It is recommended that children aged 1 year and older be vaccinated to prevent HAV, as well as other persons with a common risk factor. Find out if you should get the hepatitis A vaccine and then use the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to help get your hepatitis A vaccine.
Because not all people are vaccinated for hepatitis A, it is important to know that it can also be prevented by maintaining good hygiene and food preparation practices. Hand washing after using the bathroom and before preparing any food along with proper cleaning of surfaces before and after food preparation can help prevent the spread of hepatitis A and other food-borne infections.
Healthcare providers can diagnose HAV based on a blood test. The blood test will detectif there are antibodies to the hepatitis A virus. In most cases, HAV can be detected in a blood test 5-10 days before symptoms appear. The best way to protect yourself and your family members from getting HAV is by getting everyone vaccinated.
People who are at increased risk for HAV should get vaccinated. Individuals who are at an increased risk for HAV include those who:
- Travel to developing countries
- Have sex with an infected person
- Are men who have sex with men
- Use drugs (injection and non-injection)
- Are homeless
- Live with or care for someone who has HAV.
Unlike treatment for hepatitis B and C, there are no curative treatments available for hepatitis A. The best way to prevent hepatitis A infection is by getting vaccinated.
Once a person is infected with HAV, the best way to recover is to rest, drink plenty of fluids, eat a balanced diet, and work with your healthcare provider to manage any nausea. Depending on how severe the infection is, it may take several weeks or even months to fully recover from symptoms of hepatitis A.
Help Raise Awareness About Hepatitis A Outbreaks
Get the latest from CDC about outbreaks in the United States.
Learn More About Hepatitis A
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral Hepatitis
National Institutes of Health: