2023 22nd Public Meeting: The in-person public meeting, held March 23-24th, explored the intersection of the environment and antimicrobial resistance and presented the report with recommendations titled Preparing for the Next Pandemic in the Era of Antimicrobial Resistance. The report was approved through a unanimous vote to be transmitted to the Secretary of HHS and for public availability. 21st Public Meeting: This virtual public meeting, held January 24-25th, was a continuation of the PACCARB’s effort to explore the integration of antimicrobial resistance into pandemic preparedness policy. The meeting was focused on exploring the challenges communicating science and antimicrobial resistance during a pandemic, as well as exploring how to better address equity and vulnerable populations in these plans. 2022 20th Public Meeting: The PACCARB held an in-person public meeting on September 12-13th that was dedicated to conducting a One Health, antimicrobial resistance, and pandemic preparedness policy workshop. The focus of this meeting was a hypothetical, large-scale disease outbreak scenario that was used to facilitate discussions intended to identify key issues and critical gaps in pandemic policy as they relate to antimicrobial resistance. 19th Public Meeting: On March 2nd, the virtual public meeting was centered around One Health retrospectives on past pandemic influenza outbreaks and how they impacted antimicrobial use, resistance, and stewardship. The goal of this review of past viral outbreaks was to understand and prepare for the role of antimicrobial resistance in future viral pandemics. February: CDC publishes a special report on COVID-19: U.S. Impact on Antimicrobial Resistance. 2021 18th Public Meeting: This virtual public meeting was held November 30th and December 1st. Council discussions focused on both global efforts to combat AMR, including updates from the Global Leaders Group and the World Health Organization, in addition to presentations focused on addressing AMR within pandemic preparedness planning. This meeting also included a presentation from the National Academies on their recent report titled Examining the Long-term Health and Economic Effects of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the United States. 17th Public Meeting: On October 6th, the PACCARB held a short public meeting that was dedicated to the deliberation and vote on a resolution letter with recommendations regarding support for legislation that promotes the production of new antimicrobial drugs. The Council voted unanimously to transmit the resolution to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and for public availability. 16th Public Meeting: The virtual meeting was held June 29th and 30th. Discussions were dedicated to the deliberation and vote on two reports to transmit to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Both reports, Bridging the Gap: Improving Antimicrobial Access and Use Across One Health and Advancing Interprofessional Education and Practice to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance were unanimously approved by the full council. The remainder of the 2-day public meeting included an update on the status of the antibiotic development pipeline and an exploration of operationalizing One Health and the environmental dimensions of antimicrobial resistance. 15th Public Meeting: The February virtual meeting was held by the PACCARB on the 10th and 11th. The meeting was dedicated to presentations from two new working groups of the PACCARB, one on Inter-Professional Education and another on Antibiotic Access and Use, which were formed in response to a task letter from the Assistant Secretary for Health. The two-day virtual public meeting also included an update on the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial resistance. 2020 October 8th: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) releases the next iteration of the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, 2020-2025. 14th Public Meeting: This virtual meeting held September 9th-10th, focused on the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial resistance. Topics included presentations on the COVID-19 mortality rate due to secondary acquired infections, antibiotic stewardship practices during a pandemic, disruptions in the agricultural industry due to COVID-19 and the intersection of AMR and emergency preparedness. HHS-hosted AMR Listening Sessions: On February 26th and 27th HHS Hosted AMR Listening Sessions discussing the current landscape of antibiotic resistance, the development of antimicrobial alternatives, and included a One Health focused panel of presentations. This was not a Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. 2019 December: The CDC releases the 2019 Antibiotic Threats Reports, highlighting that antimicrobial resistance is a continued threat to public health in the U.S. 13th Public Meeting: The meeting was held July 10-11th. The PACCARB met to deliberate and vote on the report with recommendations titled Priorities for the National Action Plan on Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria: 2020-2025 and identify priority areas for the 2020-2025 iteration of the NAP. The report was unanimously approved to be transmitted to the Secretary of HHS and for public availability. The remainder of the two-day public meeting included panel presentations and council discussions surrounding emerging antifungals, as well as provider challenges and educational solutions to influence antibiotic stewardship and One Health. 12th Public Meeting: The April 8th public meeting was held via teleconference. The focus of the one-hour call was for the PACCARB to deliberate and vote on a resolution letter with recommendations regarding the inclusion of antibiotic stewardship programs in CMS Conditions of Participation. The resolution was unanimously approved to be transmitted to the Secretary of HHS and for public availability. 11th Public Meeting: The public meeting held January 30th and 31st was dedicated to hosting domestic and international stakeholders from all One Health domains, including animal, human, and environmental health. Discussions explored priority areas that have emerged since the original National Action Plan on Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria was launched in 2015. 2018 10th Public Meeting: The September 26th public meeting was dedicated to the Council’s deliberation and vote of the report with recommendations titled Key Strategies to Enhance Infection Prevention and Antibiotic Stewardship. The remainder of the meeting included panel presentations and council discussion on antibiotic-resistance, the environment, and One Health. 9th Public Meeting: The May 16th the public meeting focused on the topic of antibiotic stewardship for animal and plant health. 8th Public Meeting: The public meeting was held virtually on March 2nd. The focus of the two-hour call was for the PACCARB to deliberate and vote on two resolution letters. The first resolution letter recommended codifying PACCARB into legislation while the second resolution letter recommended continued funding for federal CARB efforts. Both resolution letters were unanimously approved for transmission to the Secretary of HHS and for public availability. 2017 7th Public Meeting: The PACCARB held a public meeting on September 13th and 14th. The meeting was dedicated to the topic of stewardship of antibiotic prescriptions and use as well as council deliberation and vote on a report with recommendations titled Recommendations for Incentivizing the Development of Vaccines, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics to Combat Antibiotic-Resistance. The report was unanimously approved for transmission to the Secretary of HHS and for public availability. Additionally, federal agencies provided updates on their achievements as stipulated in the goals of the National Action Plan on Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. 6th Public Meeting: The public meeting, held May 3rd and 4th, was dedicated to the topic of infection prevention and control for animal health. Additionally, the three working groups on Incentives for Diagnostics, Therapeutics/Anti-Infectives, and Vaccines, reported their preliminary findings to the full council for deliberation; no vote was held. 5th Public Meeting: The January 25th public meeting was dedicated to presentations from non-federal stakeholders surrounding the topic area of antibiotic-resistant infection prevention and control for human health. Discussions focused on best practices, program implementation, and workforce and education. 2016 September 21st: The United Nations held a one-day high-level meeting to discuss "Antimicrobial Resistance," the first of its kind. The main goal of the meeting was to create and maintain strong national, regional, and international political commitment to addressing the issue of antimicrobial resistance while also raising awareness of the problem. 4th Public Meeting: The in-person September 19th public meeting was dedicated to the topics of infection prevention and control, stewardship of antibiotic use, and innovative approaches to controlling resistance for both human and animal health, from the perspectives of federal and non-federal subject matter experts. 3rd Public Meeting: The public meeting, held in-person on June 21st and 22nd, was dedicated to presentations from federal and non-federal stakeholders surrounding topic areas related to incentives for the development of vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The Council began building its approach to the task issued March 25th, 2016. The Council was charged to explore how to best incentivize the development of innovative technologies for both humans and animals while maximizing the return on investment while continuing to encourage appropriate stewardship and access to products. 2nd Public Meeting: The public meeting, held March 30-31st, was dedicated to the deliberation of and vote on the draft report, Initial Assessments of the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. The council unanimously approved the report with recommendations for transmission to the Secretary of HHS. The remainder of the meeting focused on the topic of One Health and its role in combating antibiotic-resistance. 2015 September 15th: HHS, The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) announces the establishment of the PACCARB in a joint press release. March 27th: White House releases National Action Plan (NAP) for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria 1st Public Meeting: The inaugural public meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria was held on September 29th and engaged all newly appointed members. Presentations were given by Secretary Burwell, leadership from USDA and DOD, and Dr. John Holdren, Director, OSTP. Agencies also provided their updates relative to objectives and milestones in the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. 2014 September 18th: Executive Order 13676 directs federal agencies to implement the recommendations from the PCAST Report, which includes creation of a federal interagency Task Force on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, and requires establishment of the PACCARB. September 18th: President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance offers practical recommendations to the Federal government for strengthening the Nation's ability to combat the rise in antibiotic resistant bacteria. September 18th: White House releases National Strategy on Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (CARB). 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) declare antibiotic resistance to be one of the most serious problems facing our national and global health systems today. May 20-28th: WHO announces that antibiotic resistance is a rapidly evolving health issue extending far beyond the human health sector, and declares it a threat to global health security at the 66th World Health Assembly. April 23rd: CDC gives a first-ever snapshot of the burden and threats posed by the antibiotic-resistant germs having the most impact on human health in their report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. *People using assistive technology may not be able to fully access information in these files. For assistance, contact the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria by emailing CARB@hhs.gov.