Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and domestic. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, are curable or preventable, caused by human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and protects Americans.
CDC Budget Overview
(Dollars in millions)
|Immunization and Respiratory Diseases||783||798||748||-50|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||160||210||210||--|
|Balances from P.L. 111-32 Pandemic Flu (non-add)||--||15||--||-15|
|Vaccines For Children||3,557||3,981||4,109||+128|
|HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Prevention||1,118||1,118||1,162||+44|
|Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases /1||390||405||699||+294|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||52||52||55||+3|
|Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion||1,186||1,198||1,058||-140|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||446||451||480||+29|
|Birth Defects, Developmental Disabilities, Disability and Health /2||129||132||132||--|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||--||--||68||+68|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||13||13||37||+24|
|Injury Prevention and Control||150||170||257||+87|
|Public Health Scientific Services||481||481||539||+58|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||--||--||64||+64|
|Occupational Safety and Health||332||335||283||-51|
|World Trade Center Health Program /3||236||243||268||+24|
|Energy Employee Occupational Illness Compensation Program||50||50||55||+5|
|Global Health /4||416||447||448||+2|
|Public Health Preparedness and Response||1,368||1,353||1,382||+29|
|CDC-Wide Activities and Program Support /5||275||274||114||-160|
|ACA Prevention Fund (non-add)||160||160||--||-160|
|Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry||75||93||75||-19|
|ATSDR ACA Mandatory Funds /6||--||19||--||-19|
|Subtotal, Program Level||10,750||11,269||11,519||+250|
|CDC Budget Totals – Less Funds From Mandatory Sources||2014||2015||2016||2016
|Vaccines for Children||-3,557||-3,981||-4,109||+128|
|Energy Employee Occupational Injury Compensation Prog.||-50||-50||-55||+5|
|World Trade Center Health Program||-236||-243||-268||+24|
|ATSDR ACA Mandatory Funds||--||-19||--||-19|
|ACA Prevention Fund||-831||-886||-914||+28|
|Total, Discretionary Program Level||6,074||6,088||6,170||+83|
|CDC Budget Totals – Less Funds From Other Sources||2014||2015||2016||2016
|PHS Evaluation Fund Appropriation||-211||--||--||--|
|Balances from P.L. 111-32 Pandemic Flu||--||-15||--||-15|
|Total, Discretionary Budget Authority||5,836||6,073||6,170||+98|
Full Time Equivalents
2016 +/- 2015: +43
1/ The FY 2015 appropriations also provided $1.8 billion in emergency resources to support Ebola response and preparedness activities.
2/ Comparably adjusted to reflect the FY 2015 transfer of the Limb Loss program to ACL.
3/ The FY 2016 President’s Budget Appendix includes erroneous data for the World Trade Center Health Program for FY 2015 and FY 2016; the above estimates are accurate.
4/ Includes $30 million for Ebola response from PL 113-164.
5/ Comparably adjusted to reflect the creation of a separate Buildings and Facilities account in FY 2015.
6/ Funds are available through FY 2020.
CDC Programs and Services
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) work to keep Americans safe and healthy where they work, live, and play. CDC scientists and disease detectives work around the world to put proven prevention strategies to work, track diseases, stop outbreaks, and respond to emergencies of all kinds. CDC provides Americans the essential health information and tools they need to protect and advance their health. CDC is committed to reducing the health and economic consequences of the leading causes of death and disability and helping to ensure our nation’s citizens are safer and healthier people. The FY 2016 Budget request for CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is $11.5 billion, a $250 million increase above FY 2015. This total includes $914 million from the Prevention and Public Health Fund (Prevention Fund).
In order to continue to advance CDC’s core public health mission, the Budget includes funding increases to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria, prevent opioid abuse and overdose, reduce viral hepatitis-related illness and death, advance CDC laboratory safety and quality, improve environmental health, implement the Global Health Security Agenda, and sustain the inventory of the Strategic National Stockpile. In addition, the Budget includes targeted reductions to the discretionary immunization program, occupational safety and health activities, cancer screening programs, community grants, and eliminates the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant.
HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STI and TB Prevention
The Budget includes $1.2 billion for Domestic HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Tuberculosis Prevention, an increase of $44 million over FY 2015. The Budget includes an increase of $31 million to bolster CDC’s viral hepatitis prevention activities. CDC will focus on controlling the emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infection in young people, work to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection, and decrease premature death resulting from chronic viral hepatitis infection. These priorities are aligned with the HHS Action Plan for the Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis.
The Budget includes an increase of $13 million for HIV/AIDS Prevention for adults and adolescents, and further aligns HIV/AIDS activities with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. CDC will promote high-impact prevention, focusing resources on effective, scalable, and sustainable strategies along the HIV continuum of care for persons living with HIV and populations at highest risk for contracting HIV.
CDC is improving program collaboration and service integration across HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis prevention programs. These efforts strengthen collaborative work across disease areas, resulting in improved health outcomes, efficiency, and cost effectiveness. CDC publishes information on best practices and maintains support of integration by encouraging grantees to address related infections and to develop capacities that can be shared across programs.
CDC is leveraging the Affordable Care Act to improve the prevention and control of these diseases in the United States, and will continue to complement the Act’s provisions by supporting critical public health services at the state and local levels. These services include surveillance, monitoring, partner services and contact investigations, laboratory services, provider training, operational research, and outreach to populations unlikely to access clinical care.
Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease
An estimated 4.4 million Americans are living with chronic hepatitis; up to 60 percent do not know they are infected and even fewer are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Therapies are available that cure hepatitis C infection in more than 90 percent of persons who complete treatment.
To stop transmission and prevent viral hepatitis-related illness and death, CDC will use the proposed increase of $31 million in FY 2016 to:
- Expand hepatitis testing and linkage to care by health systems and providers
- Develop monitoring systems and prevention strategies to stop the emerging hepatitis C epidemic among young persons and others at risk
- Enhance vaccination-based strategies to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B
- Strengthen state and local capacity to detect new infections, coordinate prevention activities, provide feedback to providers for quality improvement, and track progress toward prevention goals
CDC is responsible for the prevention and control of a wide range of infectious diseases, including rare but deadly diseases, like anthrax and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and more common illnesses, like foodborne diseases and healthcare-associated infections. CDC’s expert staff manages a broad portfolio of science-based programs that also promote water safety, the health of migrating populations, and the identification and control of diseases transmitted by animals and insects. State and local health departments, other federal agencies, and foreign ministries of health around the world look to CDC to assist with wide-ranging problems—from the invasion of chikungunya virus into the Western hemisphere , to an outbreak of salmonella in 39 states linked to chicken in 2014. The Budget includes $699 million for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease activities, a $294 million increase over FY 2015.
The FY 2016 Budget will allow CDC to expand the nation’s ability to fight antibiotic resistance, advance laboratory quality and safety, further reduce healthcare-associated infections, and continue to modernize public health microbiology and bioinformatics capabilities. The Budget includes an increase of $264 million above FY 2015 to implement the surveillance, prevention, and stewardship activities of the National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. CDC will invest in direct action to protect patients and communities with proven interventions to reduce the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens and to improve appropriate antibiotic prescribing and use.
In addition, CDC will expand the National Healthcare Safety Network to more than 17,000 facilities, and will work with state and local health departments and other partners. Expanded activities will include working with partners to prevent infections, targeting health care facilities that need additional assistance using National Healthcare Safety Network data, and implementing prevention strategies.
Public Health Scientific Services
Advancing CDC Laboratory Safety
CDC is committed to implementing changes identified in recent laboratory safety reviews that are needed to protect CDC staff and to safely execute critical diagnostic and research work that is essential to protecting Americans. After a deliberate review of recent laboratory safety incidents, CDC is assessing safety practices at all levels of the agency and is putting in place key actions to address the root causes of recent incidents, including:
- Creating and reinforcing effective and redundant systems and controls for protocols and procedures, including inactivation of biological materials and access to laboratories;
- Ensuring adherence to laboratory quality and safety protocols;
- Ensuring adequate ongoing training for CDC laboratory staff that will keep pace with advancing technologies and protocol demands;
- Developing enhanced laboratory safety training programs; and
- Reviewing and monitoring the implementation of training policies and procedures for new and existing staff.
The Budget includes $539 million, a $58 million increase above FY 2015, for public health scientific support services. These funds support various surveillance systems, using external sources of information, and sharing best practices in collecting, managing, and using information among CDC programs and the public health community. In FY 2016, CDC will support expanded laboratory safety training and oversight, which will include a laboratory safety training center to provide ongoing training for CDC’s scientists.
CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics is the nation’s principal health statistics agency, producing high quality, nationally representative data used to identify emerging health issues and help guide actions and policies to improve health. In FY 2016, CDC will expand electronic death reporting to provide robust Prescription Drug Overdose data. The Budget also includes an increase of $8 million to expand capacity to bill for direct services and ensure that foundational capabilities are effectively maintained and delivered.
In FY 2016, the Budget includes an increase of $15 million to strengthen the nation’s public health workforce through programs that recruit new talent through fellowships, increase access to high quality training, and work with academia to improve education about population health. CDC supports fellows that receive in-depth, on-the-job training in applied epidemiology, public health operations and management, informatics, prevention effectiveness, policy, and preventive medicine. In addition, CDC works with academic partners to promote the integration of population health concepts into the curricula of medical and nursing schools and to ensure that public health education is focused on ground-level public health priorities. CDC also supports the current workforce by offering public health training and continuing education.
Combatting Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
The Budget includes an increase of $264 million to prevent, detect, and control illness and death related to infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Implementation of the National Strategy for Combatting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria is critical to addressing antibiotic resistance domestically and abroad. Some antibiotic resistant infections are already untreatable. If CDC does not work to stop these threats now, even minor infections may become life threatening and threaten the ability to perform routine surgeries or treat diseases like diabetes and cancer.
Each year, CDC estimates that over 2 million illnesses and about 23,000 deaths are caused by antibiotic resistance. In addition, almost 250,000 people each year require hospital care for Clostridium difficile infections. In most of these infections, the use of antibiotics was a major contributing factor leading to the illness.
Most critically, this FY 2016 initiative will invest in direct action to protect patients and communities by implementing proven interventions that reduce emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and improve appropriate antibiotic use.
As part of the National Strategy, by 2020, the United States, together with partners, will reduce by 50 percent the incidence of overall Clostridium difficile infection and reduce by 60 percent Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections acquired during hospitalization.
Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
CDC estimates that vaccination of children born between 1994 and 2013 will prevent 322 million illnesses, help avoid 732,000 deaths, and save nearly $295 billion in direct medical costs. CDC prevents disease, disability, and death of children, adolescents, and adults through immunization against and control of respiratory and related diseases. The Budget includes $748 million for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, a decrease of $50 million below FY 2015, as health insurance expands coverage for immunizations.
Through the discretionary immunization program and the Vaccines for Children mandatory program, CDC improves access to immunization services for uninsured and underinsured populations and supports the scientific evidence base for vaccine policy and practices across the United States. CDC also provides critical epidemiology and laboratory capacity to detect, prevent, and respond to vaccine-preventable, respiratory, and related infectious disease threats, and provides preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. In FY 2016, the immunization program will provide funding to implement health information technologies so healthcare providers have the necessary immunization information to get patients the vaccines they need, when they need them. CDC will manage vaccine supply disruptions and shortages to ensure the best public health outcomes until vaccine supplies are restored.
CDC’s influenza planning and response activities ensure a comprehensive response for seasonal influenza as well as the ability to respond to an influenza pandemic. On average, influenza causes more than 200,000 hospitalizations annually and leads to more than $10 billion annually in direct medical costs. CDC provides leadership and a cutting-edge scientific and programmatic foundation for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of influenza domestically and internationally. In FY 2016, CDC will support efforts to prevent influenza through vaccination. Annual vaccination campaigns help reach the Healthy People 2020 influenza vaccination goals, including those for minority and high-risk populations, and they also help build capacity for vaccination efforts in the event of an influenza pandemic.
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Chronic diseases and conditions—such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and arthritis—are among the most common, costly, and preventable of health problems. CDC is at the forefront of the nation’s efforts to prevent and control chronic diseases, and creates information and tools to support people and communities in preventing chronic diseases and promoting health for all. The Budget includes $1.1 billion for chronic disease prevention and health promotion activities, $140 million below FY 2015, and proposes targeted reductions while continuing priority activities.
A small number of risk factors contribute to the sizeable chronic disease burden in the United States, some of which include tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. CDC has taken steps to effectively address these risk factors at both the individual and population levels by funding state and local governments and local and tribal organizations to advance the nation’s chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts. CDC’s work targets four cross-cutting strategies: epidemiology and surveillance to monitor trends and evaluate progress; environmental approaches that promote health and support healthy behaviors across settings; health system interventions to improve the effective use of clinical and other preventive services; and community resources linked to clinical services to improve management of chronic conditions. In FY 2016, CDC will continue this work through the State Public Health Actions to Prevent Chronic Disease grant program, the Comprehensive Approach to Good Health and Wellness in Indian Country program, and the Partnerships to Improve Community Health program. The Budget includes a reduction of $20 million for the Partnerships to Improve Community Health program for the final year of the three-year awards.
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, killing about 480,000 Americans each year. Annual health care spending in the U.S. attributable to cigarette smoking totals as much as $170 billion a year, and 60 percent of that cost is paid for by the public through programs such as Medicare or Medicaid. CDC’s 2012 Tips from Former Smokers education campaign is estimated to have motivated 1.6 million smokers to make a quit attempt and encouraged more than 100,000 smokers to quit as a result of the campaign. In FY 2016, CDC will continue to build public awareness and encourage smokers to quit through the Tips campaign.
The Budget proposes targeted reductions, including the elimination of the REACH program and the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant. The Budget proposes the elimination of prostate cancer activities. However CDC will continue to share resources and lessons learned to support appropriate public health strategies for prostate cancer. In addition, reductions are proposed for cancer screening programs because health insurance expands coverage for these same screening services. In FY 2016 and beyond, CDC’s cancer screening programs will continue to work to increase cancer screening on a population level, while still providing direct services to people who are not covered by insurance.
Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
The Budget includes $132 million for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, the same as FY 2015. CDC’s programs enhance the potential for full, productive living for a large and diverse segment of the American public. CDC puts research findings and recommendations into public health action to foster a safer, healthier population. Through this essential work, CDC prevents these conditions where possible and enhances the health and quality of life for individuals who live with them.
One in 33 babies are born with a major birth defect—one every 4.5 minutes. CDC’s Child Health and Development activities employ surveillance and science to understand the characteristics of birth defects and developmental disabilities, and then use these findings to inform actions to prevent them and enhance the health of people affected. CDC investigates the risk factors for autism through the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology, which conducts the Study to Explore Early Development, the largest study in the United States working to identify factors that may put children at risk for autism and other developmental disabilities.
CDC’s Human Development and Disability program prevents disease and promotes equity in health and development for children and adults with disabilities. CDC collaborates with a variety of partners and through cooperative agreements to address public health challenges facing the one in five Americans who have a disability. In FY 2016, CDC will continue to collaborate with partners to support a variety of public health practice and resource centers focused on improving the health and quality of life for people with intellectual disability, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome. These resource centers help individuals living with disabilities by providing health information, education, and consultation to healthcare professionals, people with disabilities, caregivers, media, researchers, policymakers, and the public.
CDC works to prevent and reduce complications experienced by people with certain blood disorders. Blood disorders - such as hemophilia, thalassemia, sickle cell disease, and Venous thromboembolism - affect millions of people each year in the United States, cutting across the boundaries of age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status. Men, women, and children of all backgrounds live with the complications associated with these conditions, many of which are painful and potentially life-threatening.
CDC protects America’s health from environmental hazards that can be present in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the world that sustains us. CDC achieves this goal by investigating the relationship between environmental factors and health, developing guidance, and building partnerships to support healthy decision making. The Budget includes $179 million for these activities, the same as FY 2015.
The Environmental Health Laboratory improves the detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases resulting from exposure to harmful environmental chemicals and diseases that need advanced laboratory measurement for accurate diagnosis. CDC uses biomonitoring—measurements in human blood and urine—to identify harmful exposures or nutritional deficiencies in the U.S. population. The Environmental Health Laboratory measures more than 300 chemicals and nutritional indicators in Americans. In FY 2016, CDC plans to release new biomonitoring results, adding to previously published data for 308 chemicals and 58 nutritional indicators. CDC also expects to collaborate on more than 65 studies to assess environmental exposures in vulnerable population groups or investigate the relationship between environmental exposures and adverse health effects.
Each day, people everywhere experience environmental exposures that can make them sick, cause death, and lead to very costly health conditions. CDC programs funded under Environmental Health Activities monitor environmentally related disease, respond to urgent public health threats, apply environmental health research, provide training and guidance for the nation’s environmental health workforce, assist in emergency preparedness and response efforts, and support grants that improve state and local capacity. The FY 2016 Budget includes an increase of $10 million to build on CDC’s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative, through the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects program.
In addition, CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention program provides national expertise, guidance, and analyses of childhood lead poisoning in the United States. Lead poisoning poses a social and economic burden on families, communities, and the country. In FY 2016, CDC will fund state lead poisoning prevention programs, advise state and local agencies and stakeholders in lead poisoning prevention, provide epidemiological and laboratory expertise, and monitor trends in childhood blood lead levels for states that provide data.
Injury Prevention and Control
CDC is the nation’s leading authority on violence and injury prevention. CDC keeps Americans safe by researching the best ways to prevent violence and injuries, using science to create real-world solutions to keep people safe, healthy, and productive. The Budget includes $257 million for injury prevention and control activities, an increase of $87 million above FY 2015.
CDC’s Intentional Injury Prevention program focuses on youth violence, child maltreatment, teen dating violence, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, suicide, bullying, and firearm-related injuries and deaths nationally. Violence affects people throughout their lifespan. In the United States in 2012, approximately 78 children per hour, more than one child every minute, were victims of child maltreatment and over 1,600 children died as a result of child maltreatment.
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for individuals ages 1–44 in the United States and are projected to cost more than $81 billion annually in medical costs. CDC’s Unintentional Injury program promotes safety by tracking unintentional injuries to identify opportunities for prevention and by developing and evaluating recommendations for effective programs and policies for injury areas, including traumatic brain injury and older adult falls. Interventions in these areas are implemented at the state level.
Prescription drug overdose represents a growing public health concern, as evidenced by the fact that more than 60 people die every day in the United States from prescription drug overdoses, most of which involve prescription opioid pain relievers. The Budget includes an increase of $48 million to expand CDC’s prescription drug overdose prevention activities to all 50 states. In addition, CDC will devote $6 million to activities to identify illicit opioid use risk factors in order to best prioritize prevention efforts throughout the Department. These efforts will ensure that heroin is appropriately addressed within the context of other opioid and wider prescription drug overdose threats to public health.
To reduce traumatic brain injuries, including concussions, CDC conducts surveillance, develops and shares educational materials and clinical guidelines, and supports prevention interventions. To ensure the health and safety of young athletes, CDC developed the Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports initiative to offer information about concussions to coaches, parents, and athletes involved in youth sports. The Heads Up campaign provides important information on preventing, recognizing, and responding to a concussion. Consistent with Institute of Medicine recommendations, the Budget includes an increase of $5 million for CDC to establish and oversee a national surveillance system to accurately determine the incidence of sports-related concussions among youth ages 5-21.
Occupational Safety and Health
CDC's Occupational Safety and Health efforts help protect the nation's 155 million workers, and provide the only dedicated federal investment for research needed to prevent injuries and illnesses that cost the United States $250 billion annually. Research efforts are aligned under the National Occupational Research Agenda, which uses partnerships to maximize the impact of occupational safety and health research. CDC’s other occupational safety and health activities involve areas such as surveillance, health hazard evaluations, and basic laboratory research. The Budget includes $283 million, -$51 million below FY 2015 for these activities. The Budget proposes targeted reductions to programs such as the Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishing Program and Education and Research Centers. CDC will continue to provide scientific and programmatic expertise to the Centers.
In FY 2016, CDC will continue a project in Spokane, Washington designed to characterize the burden of disease and opportunities for health promotion among western miners. Researchers will conduct health surveillance, including assessments of respiratory and cardiovascular function, and develop strategies to formally integrate worker health promotion into an occupational health surveillance program. This work will have a significant and direct impact on improving the health of metal and nonmetal mineworkers, and provide critical data to inform research planning for the development of exposure assessment methods and engineering controls in these mines.
In addition, in FY 2016, CDC will support Personal Protective Technology research, conformity assessment, and respirator certification activities. CDC will conduct intramural and extramural research to advance state-of-the-art technology to understand and improve protection, usability, comfort, fit, and user acceptance, with an emphasis on personal protective equipment for fire fighters and healthcare workers, as well as escape technology for miners. Funding will also support evaluation of product performance for personal protective equipment used by 20 million workers in all industry sectors to protect them from job hazards.
The Budget includes $267 million in mandatory funding for the World Trade Center Health Program to support health services for responders and survivors enrolled in the Program. The Program provides quality care to the responders and other individuals affected by the events of September 11, 2001. HHS estimates that there are sufficient resources to continue the Program through the end of FY 2016.
The Budget also includes $55 million in mandatory funding to continue CDC’s role in the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program.
Public Health Preparedness and Response
CDC’s Public Health Preparedness and Response activity works 24/7 to protect the safety, security, and health of the United States from public health threats, foreign and domestic, intentional and naturally occurring. CDC provides life-saving responses to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats, as well as other disasters, outbreaks, and epidemics. The Budget provides $1.4 billion for public health emergency preparedness activities in CDC, an increase of $29 million above FY 2015.
Of this total, $644 million is requested for Public Health and Emergency Preparedness grants, the same as FY 2015. Since 2002, this program has provided more than $9 billion to public health departments across the nation to upgrade their ability to effectively respond to a range of public health threats, including infectious diseases, natural disasters, and biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological events. Preparedness activities funded by the program are targeted specifically for the development of emergency-ready public health departments that are flexible and adaptable.
The Budget includes $571 million for the Strategic National Stockpile, an increase of $37 million above FY 2015 to replace some expiring countermeasures and maintain the current preparedness levels. The Strategic National Stockpile manages and delivers life-saving medical countermeasures during a public health emergency. It is the largest federally owned repository of pharmaceuticals, critical medical supplies, Federal Medical Stations, and medical equipment available for rapid delivery to support federal, state, and local response to health security threats.
In addition, the Budget will support CDC’s critical infrastructure and cross-cutting research to facilitate rapid response to public health emergencies. CDC directs public health response efforts; detects sources of disease outbreaks; develops tests to rapidly detect biological, chemical, and radiological agents; and regulates laboratories handling the most dangerous infectious agents and toxins. The Budget also includes an increase of $10 million for CDC’s Select Agent Program to oversee and regulate the possession, use, and transfer of potentially dangerous biological agents and toxins in the United States and is instrumental in implementing the CDC Director's initiative to create a culture of safety in all laboratories handling dangerous pathogens and toxins. In FY 2016, the Select Agent Program will increase by 25 percent the number of annual inspections for high-risk facilities.
Ebola Outbreak Response in West Africa
The 2014 Ebola outbreak is the largest in history and the first Ebola epidemic the world has ever known — affecting multiple countries in and around West Africa. CDC is working with other U.S. government agencies, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other domestic and international partners, and has activated its Emergency Operations Center to help coordinate technical assistance and monitor activities with its partners. CDC is mobilizing an unprecedented emergency response to control the ongoing epidemic of Ebola in West Africa and, importantly, to restore and strengthen the capacities of health systems in priority countries so that current and future global health threats can be better addressed. CDC personnel are deployed to the region to assist with response efforts, including surveillance, contact tracing, data management, laboratory testing, and health education. In FY 2015, CDC received $1,771 million in one-time emergency funding for the U.S. Government response to contain, treat, and prevent the spread of Ebola.
As evidenced by the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, an outbreak anywhere is a threat everywhere. CDC supports efforts around the globe to detect epidemic threats earlier, respond more effectively, and prevent avoidable catastrophes. With scientists and health experts embedded in countries around the globe, CDC works with partners to adapt scientific evidence into policies and public health actions—strengthening public health capacity and improving health impact in partner countries. The Budget provides $448 million for CDC’s global health activities, an increase of $32 million above FY 2015.
CDC’s global immunization program is involved in one of the most effective of all global public health missions – vaccination against deadly diseases – which saves the lives of two to three million people every year. CDC works closely with a wide variety of partners to protect global citizens against contagious and life-threatening vaccine-preventable diseases, such as polio and measles. In FY 2016, the Budget includes an increase of $10 million for the polio immunization program to scale-up response to ongoing and new polio outbreaks, such as speeding up global transition from an oral polio vaccine to an inactivated polio vaccine. In addition, as part of the Stop Transmission of Polio Program, CDC will train over 250 public health professionals placed in countries with the highest risk for poliovirus transmission to support critical national immunization functions.
CDC supports prevention, control, elimination, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of parasitic diseases that threaten the health of individuals in the United States and globally. CDC uses knowledge and experience gained from helping to eliminate malaria from the United States to further develop and apply the science of successful elimination of parasitic diseases. In FY 2016, CDC experts will provide scientific evidence and evaluation to help implement the next five-year plan for the President’s Malaria Initiative. Central to this effort is continuing development of the evidence on insecticide resistance, antimalarial resistance, bed net durability, and effectiveness of additional malaria control efforts, such as mass screening and treatment.
The Budget includes an increase of $12 million in resources for CDC’s Global Health Security Agenda program. Building the capacity for a country to detect and respond to a potential disease outbreak or public health emergency before an event occurs helps contain dangerous pathogens as they emerge, thereby saving lives, protecting the global and U.S. economies, and preventing the spread of disease across borders. In addition, the Budget includes an increase of $10 million to expand work with partners to build strong, nimble, and sustained public health systems by focusing on the foundational capacities of applied epidemiology, surveillance, policy development, informatics and health information systems, evaluation, research, and laboratory systems. Through the Field Epidemiology Training Program, CDC establishes a network of disease detectives around the globe who are the first line of defense in detecting and responding to outbreaks in their respective countries as well as neighboring countries.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
ATSDR promotes healthy and safe environments and prevents harmful exposures through responsive public health actions. ATSDR is a non-regulatory, environmental public health agency that investigates public health concerns from possible harmful exposures in communities. Managed as part of CDC, the Budget includes $75 million for ATSDR, the same as FY 2015.
ATSDR provides funds to 25 state health departments and supports environmental health professionals in 10 regional offices and field offices in Alaska and Montana. ATSDR experts are ready for a 24/7 response to environmental health threats from natural disasters, chemical spills, and other emergency events. ATSDR also maintains formal, consultative relationships with American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. In FY 2016, ATSDR anticipates conducting more than 125 formal evaluations of health risks in communities across the nation.
Whether facing a longstanding, low-level harmful environmental exposure or an acute emergency, people need the best medical information about how to manage potential health effects. Medical professionals often lack training about the health issues associated with harmful environmental exposures. To fill this clinical care gap, in FY 2016, ATSDR will support two networks with expertise in medical toxicology and pediatric environmental health–the National Environmental Medicine Education and Consultation Project and Pediatric Environmental Specialty Units.