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Strongly Encouraged Fixes for PDF Files

ASPA-DCD classifies accessibility errors into three categories as shown below:

  • Required Fixes (RFs): violations that must be corrected and have direct mappings to either Section 508 or HHS accessibility guidelines.
  • Strongly Encouraged Fixes (SEFs): issues that are violations of WCAG 2.0 and will be elevated to Required Fixes once the 508 Refresh goes into effect; they should be proactively fixed now.
  • Encouraged Fixes (EFs): issues that should be corrected in order to meet best-practice accessibility standards but are not required for conformance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act or HHS accessibility guidelines.

Should you have questions or recommendations for revisions to the below list, please contact ASPA-DCD at http://wcdapps.hhs.gov/AccessibilityAssistance/. We welcome any and all feedback about these common-issues lists.
 

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Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion Testing Overview List of Tools
Alternative Text is Insufficient or Incomplete Alternative text does not convey the same information as the image. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Edit alt attribute to send the “take home message” the image is intended to convey. For further assistance see this link . For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. For each informative image, compare the alt text to the information gained by a visual user. No tools used.
Scope Attributes are Missing  A simple table has column headers without scope attributes. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Add the Scope attribute to TH cells to allow assistive technology to correctly identify the column(s)being referenced. For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. Inspect the document for simple data tables with column headers. Open the table editor and inspect the cell properties of the header cells to see if scope was properly set. Adobe Table Editor
Generic Link Text is Present Generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. is used, and there are no clues to link destination or funciton in the text immediately surrounding the link. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.4. Modify generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. to a value so a user can understand the destination out of context and/or ensure that the text surrounding the link provides context and the link's functionality and destination. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Page content is scanned and generic link text identified. Surrounding text is evaluated to see if proper context for the link is given. No tools used.
Nested Lists are Incorrectly Tagged Visually nested lists are not tagged as such. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1. Sub-lists should be contained within the  parent list item. For further assistance, see this link For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. Look through the document to see if there are any numbered or bulleted lists that have nesting. Open the tag tree to verify the lists are properly tagged. No tools used.
List Structure is Missing a Label List bullets or other identifiers are contained in the <Lbody> tag instead of a separate <Lbl> tag. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1. Add missing tags. Each list structure should consist of a parent <L> tag and subsequent list item <LI> tags for each item in the list. Each list item <LI> tag must contain a label <lbl> tag that includes the number or bullet and a list item body <LBody> tag that contains the text of the item. For further assistance, see this link For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection and an automated tool. Run the accessibility checker and see if there is an error for Lbl and LBody. Look through the document to see if there are any numbered or bulleted lists. Open the tag tree to verify the lists are properly tagged. Adobe Accessibility Checker
Single Item List Structures are Present List tags are used, but a single visual list is broken up into multiple single item list structures, which is confusing to Assistive Technology users. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1. Properly code list structures. For further assistance see this link For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. Look through the document to see if there are any numbered or bulleted lists. Open the tag structure to verify the lists are properly tagged. No tools used.
Paragraph Tagging is Insufficient Multiple logical paragraphs on the screen are contained in a single paragraph tag. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1. Create additional <P> tags. For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. Open the tag structure and expand all items. Go item by item to see if there are any issues with the paragraph tagging. No tools used.
Paragraph Tagging is Excessive A single logical paragraph is split among multiple paragraph tags. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1.  Move content into single <P> tag. For this item, ASPA/DCD uses manual inspection. Open the tag structure and expand all items. Go item by item to see if there are any issues with the paragraph tagging. No tools used.
Document Title is not Showing in Title Bar Filename shows in the title bar instead of the document title. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.2. Change Initial Display to "Show Title". For this item, ASPA/DCD uses an automated tool. Run the accessibility checker in Acrobat XI to see if a Title error is issued. Adobe Accessibility Checker

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Content created by Digital Communications Division (DCD)
Content last reviewed on September 1, 2015