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Required Fixes for HTML Files

ASPA-DCD classifies accessibility errors into two categories as shown below:

  • Required Fixes (RFs): violations that must be corrected and have direct mappings to either Section 508 or HHS accessibility guidelines.
  • Encouraged Fixes (EFs): issues that should be corrected in order to meet best-practice accessibility standards but are not required for conformance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act or HHS accessibility guidelines.

Should you have questions or recommendations for revisions to the below list, please contact ASPA-DCD at http://wcdapps.hhs.gov/AccessibilityAssistance/. We welcome any and all feedback about these common-issues lists.

Back to Making Files Accessible

General Checks

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Content Flashes more than 3 times per Second There is content in the site that flashes/flickers/strobes more than 3 times per second which can cause seizures. This issue is a violation of section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.3.1. Adjust content so it does no flash more than 3 times per second. If possible, remove the flashing effect completely. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #19
Linked PDF is Not Compliant There is at least one PDF linked on the site which has at least one issue that makes it not 508 compliant. All PDF’s in the site domain must be compliant or have an equivalent compliant web page. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Make all PDF’s within the site compliant or create an equivalent html page for each. PDF’s can be submitted for full formal review by ASPA/DCD which must then be revised based on the feedback. For further assistance see: W3 PDF Techniques
Webaim PDF
Time-Limit Cannot be Turned off, Adjusted, or Extended There is a time limit on interacting with content, but there is no manual means allowing a user to turn off, adjust, or extend. This issue is a violation Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.1 Implement an accessible means by which users can turn off, adjust, or extend the time limit. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #198
W3 General Technique #180
W3 Scripting Technique #16
Time-Limit Adjustment method is Inaccessible There is a time limit on interacting with content, but the method to turn off, adjust, or extend the time is in some way inaccessible. This issue is a violation Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.1 Implement an accessible means by which users can turn off, adjust, or extend the time limit. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #198
W3 General Technique #180
W3 Scripting Technique #16
Auto Updating Content cannot be paused or adjusted Certain content automatically updates on the page and there is no method for the user to stop, pause, or adjust the frequency of the updates. This issue is a violation Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.2 Disable auto updates or add a method that allows the user to pause / restart the auto update. Alternatively, a mechanism to adjust the frequency of the update can be implemented. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #4
W3 General Technique #186
Moving, Blinking, or Scrolling content cannot be paused or hidden Certain content is moving, blinking, or scrolling and there is no method for the user to stop, pause, or hide the content. This issue is a violation Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.2 Disable the effect or add a method that allows the user to pause, stop or hide the effect. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #4
W3 General Technique #186
Link for Plugin Required to View content is Missing There is content that needs an additional piece of software to be viewed. A link to obtain that software is not provided. This issue is a violation Section 508. Add an accessible link to the required plugin to view the content in direct proximity to the content. Alternatively, a "viewers & players" link can be added somewhere on the template so that no matter what content is on the page, a user can quickly navigate to the appropriate software. The viewers & players link would then go to a page such as http://www.hhs.gov/web/tools/plugins.html.
No method to bypass blocks of repetitive content No method is provided for users to skip past repetitive content such as navigation. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.1 Add a method to bypass repetitive all blocks of repetitive content. The most effective is a skip to main content link at the top of the page. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #1
W3 General Technique #123
Webaim Skip Navigation
Method to bypass blocks of repetitive content is not functional A method to bypass repetitive blocks of content it present, but no action is taken when it is activated by the user. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.1 Modify the method so it is fully functional. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #1
W3 General Technique #123
Webaim Skip Navigation
Method to bypass blocks of repetitive content is incorrectly anchored A method to bypass repetitive blocks of content it present, but the anchor is incorrect and causes users to miss content or navigate past repetitive content. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.1 Modify the anchor appropriately depending on the method to either take the user to the main content of the page, or past the block of repetitive content. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #1
W3 General Technique #123
Webaim Skip Navigation
Method to bypass blocks of repetitive content is not visible on focus. A method to bypass repetitive blocks of content it present, but the link does not display to the user when it has focus. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.1 Modify the link so it at least is visible when it gains keyboard focus. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #1
Webaim Skip Navigation
Method to bypass blocks of repetitive content correctly positioned A method to bypass repetitive blocks of content it present, but the positioning is incorrect.. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.1 Modify the link so that it is the first focusable link before the repetitive content begins. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #1
W3 General Technique #123
Webaim Skip Navigation
Accessible alternative is not equivalent There is an accessible alternative provided but it is not sufficient as the original contains different or additional information. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Make the original content fully accessible (preferable), or update the alternative to contain equivalent information.
Operational Instructions rely on Sensory Characteristics Instructions are provided for operating content on the page but they rely only on shape, size, visual location, etc to identify the content. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.3 Provide additional instructions that do not rely on sensory characteristics such as textual identification. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #96
W3 Failure #14
Graphical Symbols alone convey information There is a graphical symbol that is used to convey a piece of information with no alternative for assistive technology. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.3 Use another method to indicate the information such as an image with proper alt text. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #96
W3 Failure #26
Page redirects after a time-out A web page displays with a message to the user then automatically redirects. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.1 Implement a seamless redirect method to the user, or remove the redirect completely. For assistance see: W3 Failure #40
W3 Server Technique #1
W3 HTML Technique #76
Identification of an element across pages is inconsistent An element with the same functionality across multiple web pages is identified in a different manner. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.2.4 Modify the identification of the component so that it is consistent throughout the site. For further assistance see: W3 Failure #31
W3 General Technique #197
Order of navigational elements across pages is inconsistent An element with the same functionality across multiple web pages is identified in a different manner. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.2.3 Modify the identification of the component so that it is consistent throughout the site. For further assistance see: W3 Failure #31
W3 General Technique #197
Resizing Text Causes No Change or a Loss of Content When text is resized to 200% with either built in magnification or resizing tools in the site, content is either not resized or becomes unreadable. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.4. Restructure content so that the text is readable when magnified to 200%. For further assistance see:

W3 General Technique #179
Only one way to locate to a web page There is only one method for a user to locate a given web page in the site. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.5. Use two or more techniques to locate web pages. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #125
W3 General Technique #64
W3 General Technique #63
W3 General Technique #161
W3 General Technique #126

Color

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Color is used to convey information Color-only methods are used to convey information and there is no alternate means, making the information inaccessible to both blind and color-blind individuals. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.1. Convey information by context, markup, graphic coding, or other means in addition to color. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #14
Coblis Color Blindness Simulator
Color Contrast is Insufficient Color contrast ratio between text and background is less than 4.5:1. This is a violation of HHS Guidelines and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.3. Change color scheme by lightening or darkening one or both of the colors. For further assistance, see: Free contrast analyzer tool
W3 General Technique #18
Charts/Graphs rely on Color-only Legend A color-only legend is being used for a chart/graph that loses necessary information for understanding when converted to black and white. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.1. Convey information by adding a non-color method to the legend or providing an equivalent text alternative adjacent to the content. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #14
Coblis Color Blindness Simulator
Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Links are only identified visually by color Links have no other visual indication from surrounding text other than color, and the contrast difference between the colors is not at least 3:1. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.1. Modify links so they have a visual indicator other than color (i.e. underline) or adjust the color so there is sufficient contrast. For assistance see: W3C General Technique #183
Free contrast analyzer tool
Generic Link Text is Present and has no Context Generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. is used, and there are no clues to link destination or function in the text immediately surrounding the link. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.4 Modify generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. to a value so a user can understand the destination out of context and/or ensure that the text surrounding the link provides context for the link's functionality and destination. For further assistance see: W3C General Technique #53
W3C General Technique #91
W3C Failure #63
Empty Link A link was found that does not have any actual text making it not understandable to users of assistive technology. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.4 Add appropriate link text that provides context for the link's functionality and destination. For further assistance see: W3C General Technique #53
W3C General Technique #91

Images

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
The Alt Attribute is Missing from Image(s) There are images present that do not have a text equivalent. The alt attribute is a required element of all img tags. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Add an alt attribute to all images. If the image is strictly for decoration, set the value to null (alt=""). If the image is informative, add alternative text that captures the information gained visually. For further assistance see Webaim Alt text
W3 HTML Technique 37
W3 Image Tutorial
Alternative Text is Incorrect The alt text of an image or the text alternative of a visual element does not convey the same information obtained visually. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Correct the alt text or text alternative to convey the same information obtained visually. For further assistance see:
Webaim Alt text
W3 Image Tutorial
Non-Informational Images have alternative text Images used for decoration, layout, or other non-informative purposes have alternative text. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Hide all non-informative images by setting the alt attribute to null (alt=””). For further assistance see:

W3 HTML Technique H67
W3 PDF Technique #4
W3 Decorative Image Tutorial
Complex Images are Missing Detailed Descriptions There are images present that need more detailed, more substantive descriptions that is not appropriate to put in the alt attribute. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Add a more detailed description in the surrounding content, create an equivalent accessible version adjacent to the image, or create a visible link that takes the user to an equivalent accessible version. Best practices put alternative text at no more than 150 characters so it is not advisable to lengthen the current alt text. For further assistance see:

Webaim Complex Images
W3 General Technique #95
W3 Complex Image Tutorial
Informational Image is Hidden to Assistive Technology There is an image that visually conveys information to the user but has been included in the CSS, has an empty alt tag, or is otherwise hidden. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Modify so the image is included in the HTML and given appropriate alt text. For further assistance see: W3 Failure #3
W3 HTML Technique 37
W3 Image Tutorial
Linked Image is Missing Alternative Text An image within an anchor tag that lacks link text, also contains an empty alt attribute. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.1.1. Add link text (preferred) or correct the alt text to capture the intended destination of the links. For further assistance see: Webaim Functional Images
W3 Functional Images Tutorial
W3 HTML Technique #2
Content is not Appropriate as in Image An image of textual content such as a memo, letter, or table is included rather than the actual text version of the content. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.5 Recreate the image as actual textual content and replace or provide as an alternate. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #140
W3 General Technique #92

Audio/Video

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Audio File lacks an equivalent alternative There is an audio file that lacks a comparable alternative making them inaccessible to those with hearing disabilities. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.1 Provide a full equivalent text transcript for the prerecorded audio. For further assistance see: Webaim Transcripts
W3 General Technique #158
Audio File has an incorrect alternative There is an audio file that has an alternate, but the alternate is not equivalent. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.1 Modify the alternative so that it fully and correctly captures the content of the audio file. For further assistance see: Webaim Transcripts
W3 General Technique #158
Video Only File lacks an equivalent alternative There is a video only file that lacks a comparable alternative making them inaccessible to the blind. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.1 Provide a full equivalent text transcript for the video file or provide an audio file that describes the video. For further assistance see: Webaim Transcripts
W3 General Technique #159
W3 General Technique #166
Video Only File has an incorrect alternative There is a video file that has an alternate, but the alternate is not equivalent. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.1 Modify the alternative so that it fully and correctly captures the content of the video file. For further assistance see: Webaim Transcripts
W3 General Technique #159
W3 General Technique #166
Videos Lack Captioning A video is present that lacks captioning or relies on automatic captioning making it inaccessible to those with hearing disabilities. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.2. Provide either open or closed captioning for all video. For further assistance see: Webaim Captioning
W3 General Technique #87
W3 General Technique #93
Captions are not Synchronized Video has captions which are not timed to correspond with the dialogue or sound cues. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.2. Synchronize captioning to coincide with the actual dialogue or sound cues. For further assistance see: Webaim Captioning
W3 General Technique #87
W3 General Technique #93
Captions are Incorrect or Insufficient A video is captioned, but the captions do not correctly match the audio or are missing significant sound cues. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.2. Revise the captioning to accurately capture the dialog and any significant sound cues. For further assistance see: Webaim Captioning
W3 General Technique #87
W3 General Technique #93
Video Requires Audio Description A video has either visual text or contains a significant action sequence which is not narrated making the content inaccessible to users who are blind or have other visual disabilities. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.2.5 Add additional narration to the video that describes the visual text or action sequence, or create a 2nd version of the video with the additional narration. For further assistance see: Webaim Audio Description
W3 General Technique #173
Sound automatically plays for more than 3 seconds with no option to turn off On page load, sound or video with sound automatically plays for more than 3 seconds and there is no control to turn off. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.2 Default the sound/video to stopped until interacted with, or ensure there is an accessible method for the user to pause or turn off the sound/video. For Further Assistance see: W3 General Technique #171
W3 General Technique #170
W3 Failure #23

Keyboard

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Visual Focus indicator is Missing When tabbing through the page, there is no visual focus indicator to let keyboard users know which element currently has focus. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.7 Add a visual focus indicator to all focusable elements. For further assistance see: Webaim Keyboard Problems
W3 General Technique #149
Visual Focus indicator is Faint When tabbing through the page, there is a visual focus indicator to let keyboard users know which element currently has focus, but it is barely distinguishable. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.7 Modify the focus indicator so that it is more prominent. Suggestions include a thicker border, or greater contrast when compared to the content of the element. For further assistance see:

W3 CSS Technique #15
W3 Scripting Technique #31
Elements are not Accessible by Keyboard and Assistive Technology Elements are present which are actionable by a mouse but not also actionable with simple keyboard controls (directional arrows, Tab, Enter, Space Bar). This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.1.1. Modify content so that all actions which are accessible via a mouse are also accessible via keyboard controls. For further assistance see: Webaim Keyboard
W3 General Technique #202
Keyboard Trap is Present When tabbing through the page, the focus gets stuck in a loop on a particular element, preventing keyboard users from navigating all the content on the page. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.1.2. Modify the element on the page so that focus does not get trapped when tabbing through the page. Alternatively, the element can be removed or replaced. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #21
Same Page Link does not properly shift focus When a same page link is activated, the visual focus shifts, but the programmatic focus remains at the link. This can be experienced by tabbing to the link, activating, then hitting tab again. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.3 Modify so that programmatic focus is shifted. After the link is activated, hitting tab should go to the first focusable item in content where visual focus was shifted. W3 HTML Technique #4
Focus Management Article
Tab Order of the page is not logical When tabbing through the page, the focus does not follow a logical order which may confuse users. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.3 Modify the tab order so it is logical. Highly suggest following the visual order of the page. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #4
W3 CSS Technique #27
Unexpected change when an element receives focus When an element on the page gets focus, there is a major change on the page such as a change of keyboard focus, activation of a pop up, etc. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.2.1 Modify so that the change only happens when a user initiates action such as using enter, space, or providing an action button. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #107

Tables

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Tabular Data Lacks Table Structure Data tables are not formatted utilizing proper data table structural markup. Tables that do not have correct formatting are not accessible to users of Assistive Technologies because the relationships between intended headers and data is lost. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Tag the tabular data using correct table markup. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #51
W3 Tables Tutorials
Webaim Data Tables
Table Headers Missing TH Tags The table row or column header cells are coded as ordinary data cells. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Add <th> tag to all header cells and ensure that each <th> tag surrounds the text of the row or column header. Then properly associate to data cells. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #51
W3 Failure #91
W3 Tables Tutorials
Webaim Data Tables
Missing Header Cell Content Table header cells contain no text. Text is needed to define the header cell for assistive technology users. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. If the cell is purposely blank and is the first cell in the column and row in the table, retag as a data cell. Otherwise, add appropriate text for the header cell and/or reformat the table. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #51
W3 Failure #43
W3 Tables Tutorials
Webaim Data Tables
Header Cells for Data Tables are in a Separate Table The header cells for a table are located in a separate table from the data and need to be combined as the relationship between the two are lost. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Recode the tables so that header and data cells are within the same table. W3 HTML Technique #51
W3 Failure #43
W3 Tables Tutorials
Webaim Data Tables
Table Header Cells are not Associated with Data Cells for a table with row and column headers Table header cells are not properly scoped for a table with a single set of both column and row headers. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Add proper scope for column and row header cells. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #63
W3 Tables Tutorials
Table Header Cells are not Associated with Data Cells for a table with multiple Column and/or row headers Data table have multiple levels of row and/or column headers and lack the necessary coding associating the data cells with their respective headers. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Set the id field of all header cells and correctly associate to the headers field of all data cells. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #43
W3 Tables Tutorials
 
Data Table Coding is Used in Layout Table Layout tables contain data table markup such as TH tags, ID, scope attributes, or Summary. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Remove any table markup that should only be used in data tables. For further assistance see: Webaim Layout Tables
W3 Failure #46
Data and Layout Tables are Combined A layout table is contains an embedded data table. Layout tables cannot contain data table markup and this format is particularly confusing to users of assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Remove the layout table that contains the data table. For further assistance see: Webaim Layout Tables
W3 Failure #46
Layout tables disrupt the intended reading order Table structures are used to visually layout content, but the layout structure disrupts the intended reading order. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.2. Restructure the layout table so that the intended reading order is preserved or, preferably, remove the table structure completely and use CSS to get the desired visual effect. For further assistance see : W3 Failure #49
Webaim Layout Table linearization

Code Inspection

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Programmatic reading order makes content difficult to understand The programmatic reading order of the page or part of the page does not match the visual order to the point that it makes it difficult to understand. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.2. Adjust the programmatic reading order so that it matches the intended visual reading order. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #57
Frames Lack Title Attributes There are untitled frames, limiting the understandability of the frame and its purpose. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Add appropriate titles to all frames present. For further assistance see : Webaim Frames
W3 HTML Technique #64
Frame Titles do not Reflect the Content or Purpose of the Frame Though there are frame titles, some titles are inappropriate in that they are not reflective of the frame’s content or purpose. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Edit the frame title so that it reflects the purpose of the frame. For further assistance see : Webaim Frames
W3 HTML Technique #64
List Item Identifiers are Missing A visual list is present, but is missing the necessary coding for an ordered or unordered list. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Code the visual list with the proper HTML tags. For further assistance, see: Webaim Lists
W3 HTML Technique #48
List Item Identifiers are Incorrect A list uses HTML list tags that show a different representation than what is visually conveyed. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Adjust the code of the HTML tags to match that of the visual list. For further assistance, see: Webaim Lists
W3 HTML Technique #48
Title of page is not present Page(s) do not have the required <title> tag as part of the markup. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.2 Add a <title> tag for all pages that accurately identifies contents. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #25
Title of page is not accurate or generic Page(s) have a title tag but the text does not accurately identify the page contents and/or the same title is duplicated across pages. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.2 Modify the title to accurately identify the page contents. For further assistance see: W3 Failure #25
Default language of the page is not set The language in which the page content is written is not programmatically specified. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.1.1. Add a valid lang attribute to the <html> element. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #57
Language not Set for Foreign Words or Phrases The page contains text in a language different from the language of the main page and the change has not been programmatically identified. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.1.2 Specify language for all foreign words and phrases by using the lang attribute on the appropriate tag to indicate change of language. For further assistance see:

W3 HTML Technique #58
W3 Inheritance of Language Codes
Page(s) fails validation check An HTML validator was run against the page and an error stated in W3 Failure #70 was encountered. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1 Correct the coding errors in the validator that are stated in the W3 failure. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #134
Duplicate ID values exist There are at least 2 elements in the DOM that have the same id. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.1 Modify the id of the elements with duplicate values so that each ID on the page is unique. For further assistance see: W3 HTML Technique #93
W3 Failure #77
Fieldset used to provide a border. A fieldset code was used to provide a border around certain content rather than group related items such as checkboxes for a particular question. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Remove the fieldset and use another means to give the desired visual effect. For assistance see: W3 Failure #43
Emphasized or special text lacks semantic structure A piece of text has been emphasized or visually shown in a way that has special meaning but has not been marked up properly in the HTML. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Markup the text with the appropriate HTML. For further assistance see:
W3 HTML Technique #49
W3 Failure #2
Role of Presentation is used on content with semantic structure Content that relies on semantic structure to convey visual presentation also has the role of presentation. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Remove the role of presentation For further assistance see:
W3 Failure #92
ARIA Landmarks are Incorrectly Used Landmarks are present on the page, but either the landmark is incorrect or it does not fully encompass the correct content. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Adjust the landmark so that it accurately defines and correctly encompasses the content. For additional information, see: W3 ARIA Technique #11
W3 Page Sections Tutorial
ARIA is incorrectly coded ARIA is used on the page but it does not fully conform to the ARIA specifications. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Modify the code so ARIA fully conforms to specifications. For further assistance see: ARIA Techniques for WCAG 2.0
ARIA Technical Specification

Headings

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Headings are not properly coded Text has been visually altered to act like a heading but the text has not been coded as heading. To Assistive Technology users, this text appears no different than normal paragraph text. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Use appropriate HTML coding to define visual headings. For further assistance see: Webaim Headings
W3 Headings Tutorial
W3 HTML Technique #42
Heading levels Improperly Structured and/or Skipped Heading tags have been implemented but heading levels were either skipped (for example, H2 to H4) or did not move down a level when a logical subsection was present. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Review the heading tags and adjust the structure so that subsections of previous headings use the next level, and that there are no heading level skips present. For further assistance see: Webaim Headings
W3 Headings Tutorial
W3 HTML Technique #42
Heading Tags Used on Decorative Text Heading tags have been used on decorative text. Heading tags should only be used on text that is defining a new section of the paget. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Recode the content with the normal paragraph markup. For assistance see: W3 Failure #54
Heading does not Accurately Describe Section of Content A heading was included to define a section of content, but it is either not descriptive or does not accurately define the contents of the section. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.6. Modify the text of the heading to accurately describe the content of the section it defines. For assistance see: W3 General Technique #130
Empty headings appear on the page Heading tags appear in the code but they are empty. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.6. Remove the empty heading(s).

Forms

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Form Fields are Missing Labels There is at least one form input field that does not have a label tag properly associated with it. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Properly associate a form label tag with all input elements. For further assistance see Webaim Form Controls
W3 HTML Technique #44
Form Fields are Mislabeled There is a label tag present with the form field(s), however it is not properly associated. The for= attribute of the label must match the id= attribute of the input tag. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Properly associate a form label with all input elements. For further assistance see

Webaim Form Controls
W3 HTML Technique #44
Multiple labels are associated to a single form field A form field has multiple labels associated with it. Forms must only have one label associated. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Recode so that each form has only a single label associated with it. For further assistance see: Webaim Form Controls
W3 HTML Technique #44
Form Labels are Empty There is a label associated with the form field but the label itself has no text. Assistive Technology users rely on the text of the label to indicate the purpose of the form field. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.6. Add proper text to the label tag. For further assistance see Webaim Form Controls
W3 HTML Technique #44
W3 General Technique #131
Form validation errors are not identified in text A form failed to submit due to automatic validation, but the error(s) was not identified and/or described to the user in text. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Identify all forms that fail validation, what the problem is, and how to fix using text. Best practices are to also provide an alert for those using assistive technology. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #83
W3 General Technique #84
W3 General Technique #85
W3 Aria Technique #21
W3 Aria Technique #18
W3 Aria Technique #19
Form Validation messages are inaccessible to assistive technology The messages shown to the user as a result of input errors in form fields on the page are not accessible to Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Ensure the method to identify errors in form submissions is accessible. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #83
W3 General Technique #84
W3 General Technique #85
W3 Aria Technique #21
W3 Aria Technique #18
W3 Aria Technique #19
Form Validation messages are unclear The messages shown to the user as a result of input errors in form field are unclear as either the error message is too generic, or a known suggested correction is not provided. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.3 in WCAG 2.0. Ensure error text is clearly identifies an error has occurred, where it has occurred, and how to correct. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #83
W3 General Technique #84
W3 General Technique #85
Form automatically submits when making a selection When interacting with a form control and making a selection (such as on a dropdown) the form submits when the user is navigating the choices. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.2.2 Modify so that the form is not submitted until a clear selection is made by the user. For further assistance see: W3 general Technique #80
The Function of a Button Cannot be Determined There is a button present that is lacking information which a user needs to understand its purpose. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Alter the source code to allow assistive technologies to determine the function of the button. For further assistance see: Webaim Buttons
Form Labels are not descriptive There is a label associated with the form field but the label itself is not descriptive or accurate. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.6. Modify the text of the label so the purpose of the form is clear. For further assistance see:

W3 General Technique #131
Legal or Financial process lacks error prevention A form or process that causes legal or financial commitments does not have at least one proper error prevention mechanism. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.3.4. Add a mechanism to prevent errors that either allows submissions to be revered, checks data upon submission, or allows user to review and confirm priori to submission. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #98
W3 General Technique #164
Orphan Label Tags are Present A label tag is used on a text string that does not identify a form field. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Remove the label tag from any text that is not being used to label a form field.
Read-only Content is Coded as a Textarea Text that is intended to be read-only is coded as the contents of a text entry form field. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Remove the textarea tag and display the content as flat text with no form markup.
Grouped Form Fields Lack Fieldset and Legend Form fields that are grouped together, such as radio buttons and check boxes, do not have fieldset and legend tags. These tags provide understandability for assistive technology users. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1 Add fieldset and legend tags to grouped form fields. For further assistance see: Webaim Forms
W3 Tutorials Grouping forms
W3 Html Technique #71
Unexpected change with no prior indication when a form selection is made There is an unexpected change on the page when a form selection has been made and there is no prior indication to the user that the change would occur. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 3.2.2 Communicate the change that will occur when a form selection is made. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #13
"Required Field" Indicator is not Detected by Assistive Technology One or more form fields are required, but indication of that is outside the associated label of the form. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of This issue is a violation of Section 508 and of Success 3.3.3 in WCAG 2.0. Move the textual indicator of any required fields to be within the associated form label or add an ARIA required attribute to the input tag. For further assistance see: W3 Aria Technique #2
Formatted fields lack instruction A form field requires a specific format in order to be successfully submitted but there is no indication to the user what the format should be. This issue is a violation of Success 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Add an example of the format in the label, for example Date: MM/DD/YYYY. For further assistance see: W3 General Technique #89

AT Review

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
Elements are not Accessible by Assistive Technology There is content or an element on the page which is not being picked up by or interacted with using assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify content so that all informational and actionable elements are available to Assistive Technology users. Alternatively a separate fully accessible equivalent can be implemented if the original element cannot be made accessible.
Content for Screen Readers is hidden There is informational content intended for screen reader users that is not intended to be displayed, but also is hidden because Display:none or aria hidden = true was used. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Remove display:none and/or aria hidden = true from the content. If hidden text is desired, use absolute positioning. For further assistance see: Webaim absolute positioning
Table Headers Cannot be Sorted by Assistive Technology Users Tables have sortable headers that can be sorted via keyboard, but the headers are not accessible to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Recode so the sorting and state of the headers is accessible to assistive technology. For further assistance see: SSA sortable table example
W3 Sortable Grid Specs
Dynamic content does not alert assistive technology when changes occur An actionable element on a web page triggers an update or adds new content with no change in URL, but there is no method to alert Assistive Technology users of the update. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Add coding and/or instructions that allows Assistive Technologies to understand and quickly detect content updates on the page. For further assistance see: Webaim Aria
Additional Content is being announced by assistive technology There is content in the code that is not visually available, which is being announced by assistive technology and is not intended to provide additional aid or instruction. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Remove the code that is causing assistive technology to announce the content or use display:none and/or Aria hidden=true. For further assistance see: W3 Aria Hidden
The State of a Page Element is Missing Elements on the page that have a state or property are not communicating the state or property to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Add ARIA controls to allow assistive technology to determine the state of an element. For further assistance see:

Webaim Aria
W3 Aria Technique #5
W3 Aria States and Properties
The State of a Page Element Incorrect Elements on the page that have a state or property are communicating the wrong state to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Add ARIA controls to allow assistive technology to determine the state of an element. For further assistance see: Webaim Aria
W3 Aria Technique #5
W3 Aria States and Properties
The Role of a Page Element is Missing A custom element on the page is not understandable to assistive technology as role information is lacking. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Add appropriate role information to the element using ARIA. For further assistance see:

Webaim Aria
W3 Aria Technique #4
W3 Aria Roles
W3 Failure #59
The Role of a Page Element is Incorrect A page element is using an ARIA role, but the role is incorrect or invalid and does not accurately portray the element to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2 Modify role information to element using ARIA. For further assistance see: Webaim Aria
W3 Aria Technique #4
W3 Aria Roles

Common Elements

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion
CAPTCHA method is inaccessible and there is not alternative There is a CAPTCHA element on the page that is inaccessible to at least one group of users with disabilities. Use a fully accessible CAPTCHA method or provide and accessible alternate. For further assistance see: W3 general technique #143
W3 general technique #144
W3 Captcha Alternatives
Expandable/Collapsible element causes content to be inaccessible An expandable element is on the page but causes content to be inaccessible. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify the code so that the content is accessible. For assistance see the following implemented examples: Heydonworks Collapsible
MIT Example
US Standard Accordion
W3 Accordion Specs
Expandable/Collapsible element lacks or has incorrect Role/State An expandable element is on the page and content is reachable, but the element lacks or has incorrect Role or State information to make it understandable to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2. Modify the code so that the Role and State information is presented correctly and accurately. For assistance see the following implemented examples: Heydonworks Collapsible
MIT Example
US Standard Accordion
W3 Accordion Specs
Tabbed Interface causes content to be inaccessible A Tabbed interface element is on the page but causes content to be inaccessible. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify the code so that the content is accessible. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Tab Panel Specs
Healthcare.gov Tabs
 
Tabbed Interface lacks or has incorrect Role/State A Tabbed interface element is on the page and content is reachable, but the element lacks or has incorrect Role or State information to make it understandable to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2. Modify the code so that the Role and State information is presented correctly and accurately. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Tab Panel Specs
Healthcare.gov Tabs
Menu causes content to be inaccessible A Menu element is on the page but causes content to be inaccessible. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify the code so that the content is accessible. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Menu Specs
W3 Menu Tutorial
Menu lacks or has incorrect Role/State information A Menu interface element is on the page and content is reachable, but the element lacks or has incorrect Role/State information to make it understandable to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2. Modify the code so that the Role/State information is presented correctly and accurately. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Menu Specs
W3 Menu Tutorial
Slideshow Cannot be Paused or Stopped A carousel/slideshow automatically advances and there is no accessible method to pause and go to individual slides. This issue is a violation Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.2.2 Implement a method to pause/stop the control and allow a means by which a user can manually move back and forth between individual slides. For further assistance see: W3 Carousel Tutorial
Slideshow causes content to be inaccessible A Slideshow element is on the page but causes content to be inaccessible. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify the code so that the content is accessible. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Menu Specs
W3 Carousel Tutorial
Slideshow lacks or has incorrect state information A Slideshow interface element is on the page and content is reachable, but the element lacks or has incorrect role or state information to make it understandable to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2. Modify the code so that the role and state information is presented correctly and accurately. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Carousel Tutorial
Modal Dialog has incorrect Focus management A modal dialogue appears that does not receive programmatic focus and is not immediately following that control that caused it to appear and/or focus is not returned when the dialog is closed. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.3 When a modal Dialog Box appears, the content must either keyboard focus must be placed on the first actionable control. If there is no other actionable control, then focus should be placed on the close button. To ensure that the modal dialog operates correctly, code the dialog using ARIA. For further assistance see:

W3 Modal Specs
Healthcare.gov Dialog
W3 Failure #85
Modal Dialog causes content to be inaccessible A Modal dialog element is on the page but causes content to be inaccessible. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.3.1. Modify the code so that the content is accessible. For assistance see the following implemented examples: W3 Modal Specs
Healthcare.gov Dialog
Modal Dialog does not Hide Underlying Content . This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 4.1.2. Code the dialog so that when the modal is active, underlying content is not available to keyboard or assistive technology For further assistance see: W3 Modal Specs
Healthcare.gov Dialog
Sortable Table has incorrect Focus management A data table with sortable columns appears but focus is lost when the columns are activated. This issue is a violation of Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 2.4.3 Code the table so that focus stays on the header cell when using the controls to sort the table. For further assistance see:

Deque Sortable Grid
Healthcare.gov Table
Content created by Digital Communications Division (DCD)
Content last reviewed on September 1, 2015