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Required Fixes for HTML Files

ASPA-DCD classifies accessibility errors into three categories as shown below:

  • Required Fixes (RFs): violations that must be corrected and have direct mappings to either Section 508 or HHS accessibility guidelines.
  • Strongly Encouraged Fixes (SEFs): issues that are violations of WCAG 2.0 and will be elevated to Required Fixes once the 508 Refresh goes into effect; they should be proactively fixed now.
  • Encouraged Fixes (EFs): issues that should be corrected in order to meet best-practice accessibility standards but are not required for conformance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act or HHS accessibility guidelines.

Should you have questions or recommendations for revisions to the below list, please contact ASPA-DCD at http://wcdapps.hhs.gov/AccessibilityAssistance/. We welcome any and all feedback about these common-issues lists.
 

Back to Making Files Accessible

 

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion Testing Overview List of Tools
The Alt Attribute is Missing from Images There are images present that do not have a text equivalent. The alt attribute is a required element of all img tags. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add an alt attribute to all images. If the image is strictly for decoration, set the value to null (alt=""). If the image is informative, add alternative text that captures the take home message of the image. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools flag the images that lack the alt attribute. Manual inspection of the HTML by viewing the source code can then be used to confirm. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Alternative Text is Incorrect The alternative text does not match the actual purpose of the image. The alternative text should contain both the take home message and any actual text that is in the image itself. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Analyze the image and correct the alternative text to correctly communicate the purpose of the image. For further assistance  see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools show the alt text of images and can alert users to missing/empty alt tags. Manual inspection can then be used to compare the alt text to the image to make sure all information is captured, namely any text that appears on the image and the take-home message of the image. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Noninformative  Images have Alternative Text Images used for decoration, layout, or other non-informative purposes have alternative text, which is not appropriate in that context. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Set the alt attribute to be empty (null): alt=””. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools show the alt text of images and can alert users to missing/empty alt tags. Manual inspection can then be used to compare the alt text to the image to make sure all information is captured, namely any text that appears on the image and the take-home message of the image. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Linked Image is Missing Alternative Text An image within an anchor tag that has no link text, also does not have alternative text within the alt attribute (i.e., the alt attribute is left empty). This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add an alternative text description that indicates the title of the destination page. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools flag the image links that lack the alt attribute. Manual inspection of the HTML by viewing the source code can then be used to confirm. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Textual Equivalent for Extended ASCII Characters is Missing  There are extended ASCII characters that Assistive Technology is unable to detect. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Convert the ASCII character to an image or HTML entity. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection to identify potential issues. Then, screen readers can be used to confirm the issues because screen readers will pronounce the Unicode value of unknown characters.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Complex Images are Missing Detailed Descriptions There are images present that need more detailed, more substantive descriptions. Examples include pie charts, organizational charts, maps and graphs. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add a more detailed description in the surrounding content (preferred), or expand the existing alternative text to be more expansive and complete, or create a visible URL to the page with the text description. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools show the alt text of images and can alert users to missing/empty alt tags. Manual inspection can then be used to compare the alt text to the image to make sure all information is captured, namely any text that appears on the image and the take-home message of the image. Manual inspection of captions (if present) and near-by body text, too, can be used to verify the presence (or absence) of a detailed description. Detailed descriptions for complex images general include information about the figure type (painting, bar chart, pie chart, etc.), the figure's purpose or take-home message, and information about the physical appearance of the figure (such as axis limits and overall trends, if any, in the figure). Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Alternative Text is Missing Text From the Image  One or more graphics contains images of text that are not accounted for alternative text. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(a) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0.
 
Add any text in the image to the alt attribute. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools show the alt text of images and can alert users to missing/empty alt tags. Manual inspection can then be used to compare the alt text to the image to make sure all information is captured, namely any text that appears on the image and the take-home message of the image. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Audio Files are Missing Comparable Alternative The audio files lack a comparable alternative, and some users  will not have access to the audio-only information. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.1 in WCAG 2.0. Provide a full text transcript for all prerecorded audio. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When an audio file is encountered, manual inspection is used to review the page to look for the presence of a transcript. If a transcript is present, the transcript can be compared to the audio file, by playing the audio file and reading along with the transcript, to ensure they match one another. No Tools used.
Video has Insufficient Captions The video has captioning, but for dialog only. The captioning is not representative of the context of the narrative. For example, silence, certain grunts/groans, or  an off-camera door closing  might need to be captioned if valuable to the narrative. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.2 in WCAG 2.0. Revise the captioning of the video to include relevant sounds beyond spoken words. For further assistance , see this link, this link or this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When a video file is encountered that has captions, the audio track and the captions can be compared by playing the video with the captions enabled and ensuring a match between the two. As part of this check, typos and captions that are out of sync with the audio, too, should be noted. In many cases, captioning only what is spoken is okay. In some cases there are nonspoken sounds, too, that might be important to the video's narrative flow or plot that should be present, too---such as an off-screen character ringing a doorbell prior to making his entrance into the camera's field of view. No Tools used.
Videos have Captioning but the Captions are Incorrect The video is captioned, but the captions do not correctly match the audio. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.2 in WCAG 2.0. Revise the captioning to accurately capture and be synchronized with the dialog. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When a video file is encountered that has captions, the audio track and the captions can be compared by playing the video with the captions enabled and ensuring a match between the two. As part of this check, typos and captions that are out of sync with the audio, too, should be noted. In many cases, captioning only what is spoken is okay. In some cases there are nonspoken sounds, too, that might be important to the video's narrative flow or plot that should be present, too---such as an off-screen character ringing a doorbell prior to making his entrance into the camera's field of view. No Tools used.
Multimedia Captions are not Synchronized Multimedia has captions which are not timed to correspond with the action. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.2 in WCAG 2.0. Synchronize captioning with both audio and video content. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When a video file is encountered that has captions, the audio track and the captions can be compared by playing the video with the captions enabled and ensuring a match between the two. As part of this check, typos and captions that are out of sync with the audio, too, should be noted. In many cases, captioning only what is spoken is okay. In some cases there are nonspoken sounds, too, that might be important to the video's narrative flow or plot that should be present, too---such as an off-screen character ringing a doorbell prior to making his entrance into the camera's field of view. No Tools used.
Video Uses Automatic Captioning Video captions were created using automatic voice recognition software. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.2 in WCAG 2.0. Use a manual captioning service. For further assistance see this link, this link, or this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When a video file is encountered that has captions, the audio track and the captions can be compared by playing the video with the captions enabled and ensuring a match between the two. As part of this check, typos and words that don't match the audio is clue that the captions might be automatically generated. Also, when a video file is encountered, expand the captioning icon. Look to see if there is any indication of automatic captioning. No Tools used.
Videos Lack Captioning Captions enabling users to follow the audio portion of the video are missing. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.2.2 in WCAG 2.0. Provide either open or closed captioning for all video. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Look to see if there are open or closed captions included. If not, see if there is an option to toggle captions on. No Tools used.
Videos are Missing Audio Description The video has no descriptive narrations, meaning the nonspoken elements of the video are inaccessible to users who are blind or have other visual disabilities. Narration is needed to describe significant actions or visual-only information. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(b) in Section 508 and Success Criterions 1.2.3 and 1.2.5 in WCAG 2.0. Add descriptive audio to make the video accessible. Look for action sequences that appear critical to the narrative or text-based messages appearing in the video that are not already covered in the existing audio track and add narration that accounts for those elements. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. When a video file is encountered, verify if there is any textual content or important visual cues that are not captured in the audio track. It is very common for text to appear onscreen, especially in informative videos, that lack any audio equivalent. Not having the audio equivalent means blind and low-vision users will not have access to the information. No Tools used.
Distinctions Beyond Color-Only are Missing  Color-only distinctions are present and there are no alternative means to those distinction methods, making the information inaccessible to both blind and color-blind individuals. And, if reproduced in black and white, the distinction is potentially inaccessible to noncolor-blind individuals as well. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(c) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Convey information by context, markup, graphic coding, or other means in addition to color. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Look for information that is conveyed with color only. For charts and graphical images, color legends are a common violation. If there is any doubt, print out the page on a black and white piece of paper to determine whether all information and relationships are maintained and usable. No Tools used.
Form Validation Messages Rely Only on Color The form validation error messages rely only on color and are inaccessible to individuals who are color blind. This is a violation of 1194.22(c)  in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the form validation error message to be clearer and to make use of additional distinctions beyond color. The form validation error message should include (a) the word "error", (b) cues or instructions for resolving the validation errors, and (c) the number of form validation errors found. The error message should also be emphasized. Visual and keyboard focus should also be placed on the error message to bring user attention to it.
For further assistance see
this link  .

 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. If there is a form on the page, various values can be entered (or fields left blank) to purposefully initiate error messages. If so, evaluate the message to see if color-only is used as the method communicating the error. A common violation is the statement, "Errors appear in red."  No Tools used.
Color Contrast is Insufficient A color-contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 for text against background, including text in images is not being met. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(c) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the foreground and/or background colors so that the contrast ratio between the text and background is at least 4.5:1. The following tool can be used for measuring the on screen color contrast: this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. On the page, look for all unique font-color–background-color combinations and then use an automated tool to capture the contrast ratio of each unique combination in order to ensure all combinations have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1. Color-Contrast Analyzer
Visual Focus is Missing When tabbing through the page, there is no visual focus indicator to let keyboard users know which element currently has focus. This issue is a violation of 1194.21 (c) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 2.4.7 in WCAG 2.0. Add a visual focus indicator to all focusable elements. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be tabbed through manually and confirmed visually to ensure the content that receive focus has a visual indicator (typically a dashed-lined box). Visual focus should be checked in all major browsers: IE, Firefox, Chrome, Safari on Mac, etc. No Tools used.
Tab Order Does not Match Visual Order When tabbing through links, the focus does not follow the same order as the visual layout of the page suggests. This issue is a violation of 1194.21 (c) and 1194.22(d) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 2.4.3 in WCAG 2.0. Reorder the way HTML elements appear in the DOM. Do not use tab index to artificially alter order. For further assistance see  this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can tabbed through and visual focus monitored to ensure the tab order matches the intended visual reading order. No Tools used.
Required Content is Hidden CSS is hiding elements required for accessibility from Assistive Technology. This is a violation of Section 508 1194.22(d) and WCAG 2.0 Principle 1.  Change CSS to move the content off-screen instead of hiding it. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Inspect any styles for “display: none” or “visibility:hidden”. No Tools used.
Alternatives for Server-side Image Maps are Missing Server-side image maps are not accessible via keyboard navigation nor do they support association with alternative text. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(e) in Section 508. Convert server-side image maps to client-side image maps or remove them entirely. If this is not possible, developers must add redundant text links for each part of the server-side image map. For further assistance see this link   For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Make sure there are no server-side image maps by manually confirming that there are coordinates in the bottom left status bar during a mouseover. No Tools used.
Image Map is Missing Alternative Text There is an image map that does not have alternative text for each area along image. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(f) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 1.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Ensure each image map hotspot (area element) has an appropriate alt attribute. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools show the alt text of images. Manual inspection can then be used to compare the alt text to the image to make sure all information is captured. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Header Cells for Data Tables are in a Separate Table  The header cells for a table are located in a separate table from the data and need to be combined. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(g) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Recode the tables so that header and data cells are within the same table. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools can be used to show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can be used to verify whether or not header cells are in a separate table than data cells. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Table Headers Missing TH Tags The table row or column headers are coded as ordinary data cells, making the tables inaccessible to users of Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(g) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add <th> tag to all header cells and ensure that each <th> tag surrounds the title of the row or column header. For further assistance see  this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can then be used to verify whether header cells are tagged with <TH>. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Tabular Data Lacks HTML Table Structure Data tables are not formatted utilizing proper HTML data table structural markup. This refers to the HTML elements table, tr, td, etc. Tables that do not have correct formatting are not accessible to users of Assistive Technologies because the relationships between intended headers and data is lost. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(g) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Code the tabular data using html table syntax. For further assistance see  this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can then be used to verify if tabular data is coded with HTML table tags. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Data Table Coding is Used in Layout Table Layout tables contain data table markup such as TH tags, ID, headers, or scope attributes, but they should not. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(g) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Remove any table markup that should only be used in data tables. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can then be used to verify whether data-table codes have been used in layout tables (e.g., <TD>). Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Data Table has Empty Header Cell One or more of the cells of a data table tagged as TH is empty (contains no text). This can cause confusion because the data cells in the same row or column are not defined. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(g) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add appropriate text to the empty header cells or restructure the table so that no empty header cells exist. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source verifies if cells tagged with <TH> have text. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Complex Tables are Missing ID or Headers Attributes Data tables have multiple logical levels of row or column headers and lack the necessary coding associating the data cells with their respective headers. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(h) in Section 508 and 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add id= and headers= attributes to all cells to correctly associate data cells with their respective row and column headers. For further assistance see this link  and this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to show the backend HTML coding. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can be used to verify whether header cells are properly associated to data cells. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Frames Lack Title Attributes There are untitled frames, limiting the understandability of the frame and its purpose. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(i) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 2.4.2 and 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Add appropriate titles to all frames present. For further assistance see  this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to indicate whether or not the page contains frames. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can then be used to verify whether frames have title attributes. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Frame Titles do not Reflect the Content or Purpose of the Frame Though there are frame titles, some titles are inappropriate in that they are not reflective of the frame’s content or purpose. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(i) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.4.2 in WCAG 2.0. Edit the frame title so that it reflects the purpose  of the frame. If the frame is empty, add the frame title of blank. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can be used to indicate if the page contains frames. Manual inspection of the HTML source code can then be used to verify if title attributes appropriately describe the frame purpose. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Flickering Frequency is Outside the Permitted Ranges Flicker frequencies are outside the permitted ranges, and accordingly, have the potential to adversely affect the health of the user. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(j) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Adjust the flicker rate so it is below the threshold of two times per second, or above 55 Hz. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be manually skimmed to identify flashing or flickering page content. If such content is found, using a timer, see if the flashes occurs more than twice per second. No Tools used.
Content is Inaccessible, and No Alternative is Provided A plug-in, control, or content is not accessible and cannot be altered or corrected to be accessible (usually because it is supplied by a third party). The only option, then, is to provide a text-only alternative. This text-only alternative must contain the same content the inaccessible version currently communicates. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(k) in Section 508. Create an alternative page that displays the same level of detail and information as the inaccessible content. Place a link to the accessible version immediately preceding the inaccessible content. Ensure that if the inaccessible content is updated, then the accessible version is updated as well. If at a future point in time, the original page can be corrected to be accessible, then it should be corrected and the text-only page should be removed.

 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection to locate and assistive technology to test. If there is any content that is not accessible by Assistive Technology, and there is no technical way to make the content accessible, then the page can be reviewed manually to see if there is an accessible alternative. A common scenario is inaccessible org charts that appear as images. Often, rather than putting on extensive alt-text, immediately below the image a table capturing and communicating the same information is present. Providing accessible alternatives is a last resort only when compliance cannot be achieved in any other way.. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, Dragon Naturally Speaking
Organizational  Charts Lack Text-only Versions There are Visual Org charts, which are not accessible to users of Assistive Technology. Relationships  gained visually such as lines connecting boxes or other visual grouping methods such as having boxes next to each other are missed. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(k) in Section 508.  Provide a text version of the chart with alternate means of associations either on the page (directly below the visual org chart), or provide a link to an existing web page that has a comparable text only version. For a compliant example of an implemented text only version of an org chart, see this link. (notice the bullets and sub-bullets act as a means of an alternate association method). For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be reviewed to ensure that inaccessible org charts have an accessible alternative, usually a text-only version. No Tools used.
Elements are not Accessible by Keyboard and Assistive Technology Elements are present which are actionable by a mouse but not also actionable with simple keyboard controls (directional arrows, Tab, Enter, Space Bar). This issue is a violation of 1194.21 (a) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 2.1.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify content so that all actions which are accessible via a mouse are also accessible via keyboard controls. For further assistance see  this link   For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard testing. Initially, the mouse is used to uncover all functionality within a page or site. Then, the same site can be navigated via keyboard commands only in an effort to ensure that all functionality and controls are able to engaged via keyboard controls. Common keyboard controls include using the tab and/or arrow keys to move around the site and the enter key to activate a control on the site. A secondary common error here is that keyboard focus initiates a control or change of context. Controls must be initiated purposefully by the user (such as through the enter key). Generally, is content is not accessible via the keyboard, it will not be accessible via assistive technology.   Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Elements are not Accessible by Assistive Technology Elements are present which cannot be viewed or interacted with by Assistive Technology. Examples could include dynamic content, list boxes, or complex page content. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(l) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Modify content so that all informational and actionable elements are available to Assistive Technology users. Alternatively a separate fully accessible equivalent can be implemented if the original element cannot be made accessible. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with assistive-technology testing. Initially, the mouse is used to uncover all functionality within a page or site. Then, that same page or site can be navigated (and controls activated) via the use of assistive technology.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Menus are not Accessible by Keyboard and Assistive Technology Navigation menus are present which are not accessible by keyboard controls and Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(a) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Modify menu so all primary navigation items are accessible. If a secondary menu exists, either make the secondary menu fully accessible or provide the secondary menu on the landing page of the primary navigation item. For further assistance see this link   For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard testing. The keyboard is used to navigate and activate menu items.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Menus are not Accessible by Assistive Technology Navigation menus are present which are not  accessible by Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(l) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Modify menu so all primary navigation items are accessible. If a secondary menu exists, either make the secondary menu fully accessible or provide the secondary menu on the landing page of the primary navigation item. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with assistive technology. Assistive technology is used to navigate and activate all menu items. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Keyboard Trap is Present When tabbing through the page specified under "Location" with an HHS approved browser, the focus gets stuck in a loop on a particular element, preventing keyboard users from navigating all the content on the page. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(a) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 2.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the element on the page so that focus does not get trapped when tabbing through the page. Alternatively, the element can be removed or replaced. A final option is to place a skip link immediately prior to the element that causes the keyboard trap which is anchored just past the element. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard testing. The keyboard is used to navigate through the site and visual inspection is used to confirm correct movement of the visual-focus indicator to confirm that the focus does not get stuck in an  element. This is particularly prevalent in Flash-based controls and social media streams (users can navigate into those items but not out of the items). A common fix is to implement a "skip over" link to allow users to "skip over" the content and avoid the keyboard trap altogether. No Tools used.
Accessible Notification of Content Updates is Missing An actionable element on a web page triggers an update or adds new content with no change in URL, but there is no method to alert Assistive Technology users of the update. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(l) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Add coding that allows Assistive Technologies to be alerted of the updated content. The current most effective technology to alert Assistive Technology of dynamic content is ARIA.

For further assistance see
this link  
and
this link  .
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The site can first be navigated and tested using a mouse to identify and elements or actions that cause additional content to appear on the screen. Once the dynamic content is identified, assistive technology can be used to see if the new content is detectable (receives focus and is announced) and is usable through assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Focus is not Shifted to New Content An actionable element on a web page updates or adds new content with no change in URL, and there is no shift of focus to the  new/updated content. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(c) in Section 508 and of 2.4.3 in WCAG 2.0. Modify code so that when an action triggers new content, programmatic focus is shifted so that Assistive Technology can detect the intended new content without navigating past other content. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with assistive technology. The site can first be navigated and tested using a mouse to identify and elements or actions that cause additional content to appear on the screen. Once the dynamic content is identified, assistive technology can be used to see if the new content is detectable (receives focus and is announced) and is usable through assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Tree and Outline Node Components are not Accessible by Keyboard and  Assistive Technology Users A "file tree" or outline-like element with components that can be expanded/collapsed is present, but there is no method for keyboard or Assistive Technology users to change the role or state of the component. This issue is a violation of 1194.21 (d) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Add role and state information using ARIA as well as ensuring that a keyboard user can expand and collapse tree nodes. Do not use CSS alone to accomplish this; we recommend using both CSS and JavaScript to accomplish  this. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard and assistive technology. The site can be visually skimmed to identify and tree or outline node elements. If found, a keyboard and assistive technology  can be used to confirm that the tree-node structure can be expanded/collapsed using only keyboard and assistive technology.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Tree and Outline Node Components are not Accessible by Assistive Technology Users A "file tree" or outline-like element with components that can be expanded/collapsed is present, but there is no method for Assistive Technology users to change the role or state of the component. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(d), and 1194.22(l) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Add role and state information using ARIA as well as ensuring that a keyboard user can expand and collapse tree nodes. Do not use CSS alone to accomplish this; we recommend using both CSS and JavaScript to accomplish  this. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard and assistive technology. The site can be visually skimmed to identify and tree or outline node elements. If found, a keyboard and assistive technology  can be used to confirm that the tree-node structure can be expanded/collapsed using only keyboard and assistive technology.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Table Headers Cannot be Sorted by Keyboard and  Assistive Technology Users Tables have sortable headers that can only be sorted using a mouse. This issue is a violation of 1194.21(a) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Use the files attached to the ticket for this project to help create accessible sortable tables.  For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard and assistive technology. The page can be reviewed visually and with a mouse to identify sortable table headers. If found, a keyboard and assistive technology can be used to verify the sorting functionality works fully without the need of a mouse.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Table Headers Cannot be Sorted by Assistive Technology Users Tables have sortable headers that can be sorted via keyboard, but the headers are not accessible to assistive technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(l) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 4.1.2 in WCAG 2.0. Use the files attached to the ticket for this project to help create accessible sortable tables.  For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with keyboard and assistive technology. The page can be reviewed visually and with a mouse to identify sortable table headers. If found, a keyboard and assistive technology can be used to verify the sorting functionality works fully without the need of a mouse.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, and Dragon Naturally Speaking.
Link for Plugin Required  to View Multimedia is Missing There is some multimedia  content that needs an additional piece of software to be viewed. A link to obtain that software is not provided. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(m) in Section 508. Add an accessible link to the required plugin to view the content in direct proximity to the content. Alternatively, a "viewers & players" link can be added somewhere on the template so that no matter what content is on the page, a user can quickly navigate to the appropriate software. The viewers & players link would then go to a page such as this link. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be reviewed visually to identify the presence of multimedia or other context elements (like  a podcast or a PDF). A list can be made of the such content by file type. With the list in hand, the page can be visually checked to confirm that there is a link to the Viewers and Players page (generally in the footer of HHS sites), and, then, by visual inspection of the Viewers and Players page, whether that page has a link to a player for the file type in question. If not, double check the original page for other plug-in links.  No Tools used.
The Function of a Button Cannot be Determined There is a button present that is  lacking information which a user needs  to understand its purpose. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(n) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Alter the source code to allow assistive technologies to determine the function of the button. For example, add a value, type,  or name attribute such as submit, search, or go. For further assistance see this link   For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tools can show if the page contains form-field buttons. Manual inspection of the HTML  source code can then be used to confirm that the button have populated value attributes, and name and identifying text (as appropriate) . Testing can then be done to ensure the button is properly identified by assistive technology. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Form Fields are Missing Labels  There is at least one form input field that does not have a label tag properly associated with it. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(n) in Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 3.3.2 in WCAG 2.0. Properly associate a form label tag with all input elements. For further assistance see this link   For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tools show if the page contains form fields without labels. Then, manual inspection of the HTML  source can be used to confirm. Alternatively, assistive technology, too, can be used to confirm that a form field is labeled properly. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Form Fields are Mislabeled There is a label tag present with the form field(s), however it is not properly associated. The for= attribute of the label must match the id= attribute of the input tag. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(n) of Section 508 and of Success Criterion 1.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Properly associate a form label with all input elements.For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection. Manual inspection of the HTML  source code can be used to determine the label on each button and whether the label appears to be correct in terms of the button's function. Alternatively, assistive technology, too, can be used to help identify button labels and to confirm whether the labels seem appropriate for a given button. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
"Required Field" Indicator is not Detected by Assistive Technology One or more form fields are required, but indication of that is outside the associated label of the form. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(n) of Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 3.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Move the textual indicator of any required fields to be within the associated form label or add an ARIA required attribute to the input tag. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Manual inspection can identify the required fields. The HTML  source code can then be viewed to determine placement relative to the label tag. No Tools used.
Form Validation Messages are Inaccessible to Assistive Technology The messages shown to the user as a result of input errors in  form fields on the page are not accessible to Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(l) in Section 508 and Success Criterion 3.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. The form validation error message should include (a) the word "error", (b) cues or instructions for resolving the validation errors, and (c) the number of form validation errors found. The error message should also be emphasized. Visual and keyboard focus should also be placed on the error message to bring user attention to it.
For further assistance see
this link  .

 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection and assistive technology. Visual inspection can be used to identify the presence of forms on a page. If there is a form present, the form can populated purposefully to trigger an error message. The error message can then be evaluated using assistive technology to ensure the error message gets focus and is announced by the assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Form Labels are Empty  There is a label associated with the form field but the label itself has no text. Assistive Technology users rely on the text of the label to indicate the purpose of the form field. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(n) of Section 508 and of Success Criteria 1.3.1 and 3.3.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add proper text to the label tag. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. The automated tools can show if the page contains form fields and labels. Then manual inspection of the HTML  source code can be used to verify whether the label tag is populated. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Skip Navigation Is Present but not Functioning or Coded Properly A skip navigation link is present but no action is taken when it is activated by the user. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(o) of Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the skip navigation link and/or anchor so that it takes the user to the main content of the page. For further assistance see this link  .

 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tool can be used to indicate the presence and placement of a skip navigation. Manual inspection coupled with keyboard use can then be used to determine if the skip control is properly located, functions correctly, is anchored properly, is functionally usable and detectable by the keyboard and assistive technology. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Skip Navigation is Anchored to the Wrong Portion of the Page A skip navigation link is present and functional, but it is anchored to the wrong position of the page causing the user to have to navigate past repetitive content. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(o) of Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the anchor of the skip navigation link so that it is directly above the main content of the page. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tool can be used to indicate the presence and placement of a skip navigation. Manual inspection coupled with keyboard use can then be used to determine if the skip control is properly located, functions correctly, is anchored properly, is functionally usable and detectable by the keyboard and assistive technology. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Skip Navigation is Missing No method is provided for users to skip past repetitive content. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(o) of Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add skip navigation to any page template that contains repetitive navigation or other content. Ensure that the skip navigation method is the first item loaded on the page and anchors to the main content of the page. For further assistance see
this link  .

 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tool can be used to indicate the presence and placement of a skip navigation. Manual inspection coupled with keyboard use can then be used to determine if the skip control is properly located, functions correctly, is anchored properly, is functionally usable and detectable by the keyboard and assistive technology. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Skip Navigation is Unavailable to Keyboard Users A skip navigation link is present but cannot receive visual focus by keyboard when CSS is enabled. This issue is a violation of 1194.21 (a) of Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.4.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the CSS so that the skip navigation link is visually focusable and able to be activated via keyboard when tabbing through the page. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools show if the page contains a skip navigation. Manual inspection is used to determine if the functionality is correct. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Skip Navigation is not the First Element Skip navigation is present, but it is either not the first focusable element when tabbing, or there is additional content prior to the skip navigation link that is accessible to Assistive Technology. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(o) of Section 508 and of Success Criteria 2.4.1 and 2.4.3 in WCAG 2.0. The skip navigation link must be the first element on page in which display=none is not implemented, and must be the first element in the tab order. For further assistance see this link  . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection coupled with an automated tool and assistive technology. The automated tool can be used to indicate the presence and placement of a skip navigation. Manual inspection coupled with keyboard use can then be used to determine if the skip control is properly located, functions correctly, is anchored properly, is functionally usable and detectable by the keyboard and assistive technology. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Time Extension Method is Missing and/or Inaccessible to Keyboard and Assistive Technology There is a time restriction on viewing/interacting with content, but there is no accessible method to notify the user that the time will expire and give the option to the user to extend the time. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.2.1 in WCAG 2.0. Add an accessible method to notify users that time will expire and a method to extend the allotted time. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be visually inspected to identify and any time-based content and if there is an apparent method of extending time. If so, keyboard testing and assistive technology testing can then be used to ensure that the time-based extension option is detectable and useable to the keyboard and assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Sufficient Time is Not Given for Timed Content to be Read There is timed content, but the content updates in a relatively short amount of time. There is a high risk of that content being missed by users with disabilities. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.2.1 in WCAG 2.0.  Implement a means by which users can extend the time or stop the timing sequence altogether. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be reviewed to first identify any time-based content. And, if time-based content is present, the content can be read aloud to see if the content is displayed for enough time. If the content changes before the reading of the content is done, the page can be inspected for ways to pause or stop the time-based content. No Tools used.
Time Expiration Notification is Not Accessible to All Users The notification to the user that time will expire or the method to extend the time is inaccessible. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.2.1 in WCAG 2.0. Modify the notification / extend time method so that it is accessible to keyboard and Assistive Technology users. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be visually inspected to identify and any time-based content and the presence of a time-expiration notification message. If the message is present, keyboard testing and assistive technology testing can then be used to ensure that the notification is detectable and useable to the keyboard and assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Carousel/Slideshow Cannot be Paused or Stopped The carousel/slideshow automatically advances and there are no controls present allowing users to have control over the advancement of the carousel/slideshow. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.2.1 in WCAG 2.0. Implement a pause/stop control and allow a means by which a user can manually move back and forth between items in the carousel/slideshow. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with a keyboard and assistive technology. The page can be visually inspected to identify the presence of carousels. If present, the site can be visually reviewed look to see if there are controls for the carousel that allow for starting/stopping/pausing the carousel. If present, the controls can be checked to ensure they are  usable and detectable via a mouse, a keyboard, and assistive technology.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Time-Based Content Cannot be Paused or Stopped There is timed content, but there is no manual means allowing a user to override those timings. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 2.2.1 in WCAG 2.0. Implement a means by which users can pause/stop the timing sequence altogether. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection coupled with a keyboard and assistive technology. The page can be visually inspected to identify the presence of time-based media. If present, the site can be visually reviewed look to see if there are controls for the time-based media that allow for starting/stopping/pausing the time-based media. If present, the controls can be checked to ensure they are  usable and detectable via a mouse, a keyboard, and assistive technology.  Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Multimedia Content Automatically Plays and Has No Manual Controls There is media content that automatically plays once the page loads and there is no way to stop it or replay it if needed. This issue is a violation of 1194.22(p) in Section 508 and of Success Criterion 1.4.2 in WCAG 2.0. Ensure all media content can be stopped or replayed as needed by the user. Per Success Criterion 1.4.2 in WCAG 2.0 , consider not allowing autoplay for any media beyond 3 seconds. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The page can be inspected to see if there is any multimedia content that play automatically. If so, the page can then be visually reviewed to see if there are controls present for the multimedia. Those controls can then be checked to ensure they are usable and detectable by the mouse, keyboard, and assistive technology. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes

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Content created by Digital Communications Division (DCD)
Content last reviewed on September 1, 2015