• Text Resize A A A
  • Print Print
  • Share Share on facebook Share on twitter Share

Encouraged Fixes for HTML Files

ASPA-DCD classifies accessibility errors into three categories as shown below:

  • Required Fixes (RFs): violations that must be corrected and have direct mappings to either Section 508 or HHS accessibility guidelines.
  • Strongly Encouraged Fixes (SEFs): issues that are violations of WCAG 2.0 and will be elevated to Required Fixes once the 508 Refresh goes into effect; they should be proactively fixed now.
  • Encouraged Fixes (EFs): issues that should be corrected in order to meet best-practice accessibility standards but are not required for conformance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act or HHS accessibility guidelines.

Should you have questions or recommendations for revisions to the below list, please contact ASPA-DCD at http://wcdapps.hhs.gov/AccessibilityAssistance/. We welcome any and all feedback about these common-issues lists.

 

Back to Making Files Accessible

 

Issue Title Issue Description Remediation Suggestion Testing Overview List of Tools
Verbose or Redundant Alternative Text is Present Alternative text repeats adjacent text or  contains extraneous wording such as “image of...”, “this image shows...”, etc. Revise alternative text to eliminate extraneous wording. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools show the alt text of images. Manual inspection shows if verbose alt text is present. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Alternative Text Description Duplicates Link Text An image that is part of a link has alternative text that is identical to the link text, producing duplication.  Remove the image from the anchor and use CSS to position the image, or,  reword the alternative text description of the image to better explain its purpose. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools show which text are headings. Manual inspection evaluates the headings for verbosity. Accessibility Tools: WAVE,  Developer's Toolbar 
Headings Contain Too Much Information  Headings are too verbose and need to be reworded.  A Heading should be a short, descriptive title of a section or category. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools are used to turn CSS on and off. Manual inspection is used to confirm. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
CSS is Used to Hide Content Certain content is hidden by CSS and displaying it could cause confusion in some users. Set Page load order and display properties to minimize possible confusion. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools are used to detect the presence of layout tables. Manual inspection is used to confirm.  Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Layout Tables are Used Tables are used to layout content instead of CSS.  Recode layout tables using CSS on div and span tags to separate content from presentation. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Visual observation of tables determines complexity. No tools used.
A Complex Table is Reformatable into a Series of Simple Tables There is a complex data table (one with multiple column or row headers) on the page. Even when properly coded, complex tables can be difficult for Assistive Technology users to understand. In most cases, complex tables can be broken up into a series of simple tables. Modify the complex data table into a series of simple data tables.
 
For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Visual observation of tables determines location of title. No tools used.
A Table Title is Contained in the Table Body The title of the table is contained in the body of the table, causing the  table to be considered complex. Data table bodies should only contain the header cells and the subsequent data cells. Remove the title of the table from the body and place it in a caption tag. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Visual observation of page determines presence of Flash containing text.  No tools used.
Flash Text Elements are not Coded as Such In Flash, some text is not coded as flat text and included in the accessible tag structure. Code text as a separate text element and make sure it is staged. For further assistance see this link. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools are used to turn CSS on and off. Manual inspection is used to compare content with and without CSS. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Content Visibility or Display is Altered by CSS When comparing web page appearance with and without CSS, there is content that does not match (displayed in one but not the other), a potential cause of confusion to Assistive Technology users.  Modify code so that content is consistent with CSS disabled as compared to the content with CSS enabled. No content should disappear, no additional content should appear, and reading order should be maintained. Display: none is not always reliable, so completely removing from the DOM is always the best option. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Automated tools are used to detect the form fields. Manual inspection is used to confirm structure. Accessibility Tools: WAVE, Developer's Toolbar
Read-only Content is Coded as a Textarea Text that is intended to be read-only is coded as the contents of a text entry form field. Remove the textarea tag and display the content as flat text with no form markup. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Visual observation of the page determines when textareas are read only. No tools used.
Link Opens In a New Window, but There is No notification Provided to Assistive Technology The links in this site open in new windows or tabs and there is no notification provided to users of assistive technology. not having a notification can foster navigational challenges---especially when a user attempts to backspace to the previous page and fails. Add a method to inform users that links will be opening in new windows or tabs. For further assistance see this link. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Links that open in new windows or tabs with no notification are observed. Assistive Technology: JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes
Non-actionable Items Have Tab Stops  When users tab through a page, some tab stops are not actionable. This can cause confusion to Assistive Technology and keyboard users. Remove tab stops from elements of the page that are not actionable. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. The keyboard is used to tab through a page. All tab stops are observed.  No tools used.
Audio Contrast is Insufficient The contrast between foreground and background sounds in the audio is less than 20 dB and can create challenges for individuals with hearing disabilities. This issue is a violation of WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion 1.4.7 (level AAA). Increase the audio contrast between foreground and background sounds to at least 20db. For further assistance see this link. For this item, ASPA-DCD uses both manual inspection and an automated tool. Manual inspection determines if there is background noise, automated tools measure the audio contrast. Audacity
Generic Link Text is Present Generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. is used, and there are clues to link destination or function in the text immediately surrounding the link. Modify generic link text such as ‘Click Here’, ‘Read More’, etc. to a value so a user can understand the destination out of context . For this item, ASPA-DCD uses manual inspection. Page content is scanned and generic link text identified. Surrounding text is evaluated to see if proper context for the link is given. No tools used.

Back to top

 

Back to Making Files Accessible

Content created by Digital Communications Division (DCD)
Content last reviewed on January 30, 2015