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A Picture of Adolescent Health

The adolescent years are critical for teens’ current and future health. Good health enables adolescents to learn and grow. While adolescents are generally healthy, mental health, substance use, obesity, and risky sexual behaviors are common challenges for adolescents. These health issues can have long-term effects but they can often be prevented by having supportive relationships and healthy communities. Here’s how America’s teens measure up.

Physical Health and Nutrition

Physical Activity

Percent of high school students who reported getting 60 minutes of physical activity on five or more days in the last 7 days, by sex, 2017: 57% of males, 37% of females, 47% overall.

In 2017, male high school students (57 percent) were much more likely than female high school students (37 percent) to report getting 60 minutes of physical activity on five or more days in the past week.1 Overall, just under half of all high school students (47 percent) said they were physically active for 60 minutes on five or more days in the last seven days.1 Regular and continued physical activity, along with eating a healthy diet, promotes overall health and helps people achieve or maintain a healthy weight.2

Note: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) defines this measure as: “Physically active at least 60 minutes per day on 5 or more days; adding up time spent in any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time, during the seven days before the survey.”

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

Sleep

Percent of high school students who got 8 or more hours of sleep on an average school night, by grade, 2017: 35% of 9th graders, 27% of 10th graders, 21% of 11th graders, 18% of 12th graders, and 25% overall.

Adequate sleep is essential for healthy adolescent development. Getting inadequate sleep puts one at risk for physical health conditions including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes; mental health issues; and drowsy driving. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that teens get eight to 10 hours of sleep per night.3 But, just one-quarter of high school students reported getting eight or more hours of sleep on an average school night in 2017. Students 9th grade were more likely to get adequate sleep than students in 10th grade, 11th grade, and 12th grade.1

Note: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) defines this measure as: “Got 8 or more hours of sleep on an average school night.”

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

Obesity

In 2015-16, about one in five adolescents ages 12 to 19 (21 percent) were categorized as obese. About 21 percent of female adolescents ages 12 to 19 and 20 percent of male adolescents were obese.4 Being obese can increase the risk of health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and asthma.2

Note: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) includes a physical examination where weight and height are measured and used to calculate body mass index (BMI). NHANES defines obesity in youth: “as a BMI of greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts.”

Source: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). NCHS data brief: Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016 (No 288). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf

Health Conditions

Almost half of adolescents ages 12-17 (45 percent) had at least one chronic health condition in 2016-17, with 25 percent of adolescents having two or more conditions.5 Chronic health conditions can interfere with many activities. Teens with chronic conditions can benefit from having information about their condition, including ways to navigate complex healthcare systems.6

Asthma—the single most common chronic condition among adolescents—affected more than one in five high school students (23 percent) in 2017.1,7 It is a top 20 leading cause of hospitalization among children under age 15, which can lead to school absences.8 Males and females are equally likely to have asthma.1

Note: The National Survey of Children's Health  asked parents whether the adolescent currently has a series of 27 conditions: allergies (food, drug, insect or other), arthritis, asthma, blood disorders (such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or hemophilia), brain injury/concussion/head injury, cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, Down Syndrome, epilepsy or seizure disorder, genetic or inherited condition, heart condition, frequent or severe headaches including migraine, Tourette Syndrome, anxiety, depression, behavioral and conduct problems, substance use disorder, developmental delay, intellectual disability (also known as mental retardation), speech or language disorder, learning disability, other mental health condition, Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD or ADHD), hearing problems, and vision problems. 

Source: The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health [Data query]. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey

For more information, visit the  chronic conditions and disabilities section of our website.

Mental Health

Depression

Percent of high school students who reported symptoms of depression in the past 12 months, by sex, 2017: 21% of males, 41% of females, 32% overall.

Almost one in three high school students (32 percent) report feeling so sad or hopeless that they stopped doing some usual activities almost every day for two or more weeks in a row during the past year.1 Female high school students (41 percent) were almost twice as likely as male high school students (21 percent) to report depressive symptoms in 2017.1  Of youth ages 12-17 diagnosed with a major depressive episode, almost six in 10 did not receive treatment.9 Untreated depression can lead to serious consequences, including suicide. However, effective treatments exist and intervening promptly, before symptoms get more serious, could help.10,11

Note: The YRBS measure of feeling sad or hopeless asks whether students felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities, during the 12 months before the survey. Persistent sadness can be a symptom or precursor of clinical depression, though this is not enough for a clinical diagnosis.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

Attention Deficit Disorder

In 2016-17, one in eight adolescents ages 12-17 (13 percent) had experienced Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), either currently or in the past. Boys, ages 3-17 were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD as girls (13 percent versus six percent),1 which may reflect an underdiagnosis of girls.12 ADHD frequently co-occurs with other mental health disorders, and untreated ADHD can interfere with peer relationships, lead to trouble with school or police, substance use, and negatively affect academic performance.13,14

Note: The National Survey of Children’s Health asks parents whether  a doctor or other health care provider ever told them that this child has Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, that is, ADD or ADHD,  and whether the child currently has the condition. 

Source: The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016-17 National Survey of Children's Health [Data query]. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey

For more information, visit the mental health section of our website.

Reproductive Health

Sexual Activity

Percent of high school students who have ever had sex, 2017: 41% of males, 38% of females, 40% overall.

Teens who delay first sex are more likely to use contraception and have fewer sexual partners,15 lowering their risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.16,17 In 2017, two-fifths of high school students (40 percent) reported they had sexual intercourse (38 percent of females and 41 percent of males).1

Note: The YRBS defines this measure as "ever had sexual intercourse."

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

For more information, see the reproductive health section of our website.

Substance Use

Tobacco use

Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable death and disease. Most smokers begin smoking in adolescence.18

In 2018, about one in 20 eighth, 10th, and 12th grade students reported smoking cigarettes in the past month (4.6 percent). Less than one percent of adolescents reported smoking at least a half pack per day.19  

While smoking cigarettes has become less popular among adolescents, vaping, or e-cigarette use, has substantially increased in the past couple of years,19 and the Surgeon General has declared youth e-cigarette use an epidemic.20 In 2018, about one in five (19 percent) eighth, 10th, and 12th grade students reported vaping in the past month. In the past year, almost one in five eighth grade students (18 percent), about one in three 10th grade students (32 percent), and almost two in five 12th grade students reported vaping in the past year (37 percent).19 Different substances can be vaped, including nicotine, flavoring, and even marijuana. Though the long-term health consequences are still being studied, all forms of vaping are considered unsafe for youth. 21

Note: Monitoring the Future asks students about cigarette smoking with the following question: “How frequently have you smoked cigarettes during the past 30 days?” With the following response options: Not at all; Less than one cigarette per day; One to five cigarettes per day; About one-half pack per day; About one pack per day; About one and one-half packs per day; and Two or more packs per day. 

Monitoring the Future asks students about vaping with a series of three questions: “On how many occasions (if any) have you vaped nicotine…during the last 30 days?” “On how many occasions (if any) have you vaped marijuana…during the last 30 days?” “On how many occasions (if any) have you vaped just flavoring…during the last 30 days?” 

Source: Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf

For more information, see the tobacco section of our website. 

Drinking Alcohol

Percent of high school students who reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, by grade, 2018: 8% of 8th graders, 19% of 10th graders, 30% of 12th graders, 19% overall.

Alcohol is one of the most commonly used substances by adolescents in the U.S, though use has declined since its most recent peak in the 1990s.19 In 2018, almost one in five 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students (19 percent) reported drinking alcohol in the past month. Rates are higher for older students, with 8 percent of 8th grade students, 19 percent of 10th grade students, and 30 percent of 12th grade students reporting drinking in the past month.19

Binge drinking, defined here as having five or more drinks in a row, is also common among adolescents and can increase the risk for violence and injury, risky sexual behaviors, and chronic diseases.22 In 2018, 4 percent of eighth grader students, 9 percent of 10th grade students, and 14 percent of 12th grade students reported drinking five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks.19

Note: Monitoring the Future asks students “On how many occasions (if any) have you had alcoholic beverages to drink -more than just a few sips…during the last 30 days?”  and “How many times (if any) have you had five or more drinks in a row over the past two weeks?” 

Source: Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf

For more information, see the alcohol section of our website.

Marijuana Use

Marijuana is another of the most commonly used substances among adolescents: only alcohol use and vaping are more common among adolescents.19 Adolescent marijuana use has been linked to changes in the still developing brain, including impaired thinking and problem solving and difficulty maintaining attention.23 In 2018, six percent of eighth grade students, 17 percent of 10th grade students, and 22 percent of 12th grade students report using marijuana in the past 30 days.19

Note: Monitoring the Future asks students “On how many occasions (if any) have you used marijuana (grass, pot) or hashish (hash, hash oil) … during the last 30 days?”

Source: Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf

For more information, see the marijuana section of our website. 

Prescription Opioid Misuse

President Trump declared the opioid crisis a public health emergency in 2017. Opioids include heroin and fentanyl, as well as a number of prescription pain relief drugs such as oxycodone (e.g., Oxycontin®, Percocet®), hydrocodone (Vicodin®), codeine, and morphine. The vast majority of adolescent opioid misuse is in the form of prescription drug misuse. In 2018, 1 percent of 12th graders reported misusing prescription opioids in the past month, and 3 percent reported misusing prescription opioids in the past year. Fortunately, adolescent prescription opioid misuse is declining and is less frequent now than it was at the peak of adolescent misuse in 2009.19 Rates for older youth, ages 18-25, however, are much higher.24

Note: Monitoring the Future asks students “There are a number of narcotics other than heroin, such as methadone, opium, morphine, codeine, Demerol, Vicodin, OxyContin, and Percocet. These are sometimes prescribed by doctors. On how many occasions (if any) have you taken narcotics other than heroin on your own--that is, without a doctor telling you to take them … during the last 30 days?” 

Source: Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf

For more information, see the opioids section of our website.

Healthy Relationships

Dating violence

Intimate partner violence is associated not only with physical injury, but also with emotional and behavioral problems.25

In 2017, eight percent of high school students who had dated in the 12 months before the survey reported that they were hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend.1 Female high school students (9 percent) were more likely than male high school students (7 percent) to experience dating violence in the past year.1 This number may be a conservative estimate because dating violence incidents are often not reported.25

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

Bullying

 Percent of high school students bullied at school in the past 12 months, by sex, 2017: 16% of males, 22% of females, 19% overall.

Bullying is associated with a number of serious health issues, including substance use, emotional problems, and even suicide.26

In 2017, one in five high school students (19 percent) reported being bullied at school.1 Female high school students (22 percent) were more likely to report being bullied at school in the past 12 months than male high school students (16 percent).1

Note: YRBS defines this measure as: “Bullying is when one or more students tease, threaten, spread rumors about, hit, shove, or hurt another student over and over again. It is not bullying when two students of about the same strength or power argue or fight or tease each other in a friendly way.”

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

Neighborhood Safety

The actual or perceived safety of neighborhoods can influence health directly or indirectly. If safety concerns restrict opportunities to get physical exercise, for example, adolescents’ health can suffer.27,28

In 2016-17, more than nine out of 10 parents (95 percent) of adolescents ages 12-17 somewhat or definitely agreed that their child lived in a safe neighborhood.5 However, six percent of parents of adolescents reported that their child did not live in a safe neighborhood. 

Source: The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016-17 National Survey of Children's Health [Data query]. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey

Supportive Neighborhoods

Supportive neighborhoods—where people look out for each other’s well-being, and families can rely on neighbors’ help—contribute to social and emotional health.29 In 2016-17, just over half of parents of adolescents ages 12-17 (56 percent) agreed that their neighborhood was supportive, but almost half (44 percent) reported that their neighborhood was not supportive.5

Note: NSCH asks parents three questions related to “neighborhood support,” “neighborhood cohesion,” and “social capital”: 1) People in my neighborhood help each other out; 2) We watch out for each other's children in this neighborhood; and 3) When we encounter difficulties, we know where to go for help in our community . Respondents were asked whether they definitely agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or definitely disagree with each statement. Children are considered to live in supportive neighborhoods if their parents reported “definitely agree” to at least one of the items and “somewhat agree” or “definitely agree” to the other two items.”

Source: The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016-17 National Survey of Children's Health [Data query]. Retrieved http://www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey

For more information, visit the healthy relationships section of our website.

Footnotes


1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(8). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Childhood obesity causes and consequences. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html

3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). CDC Features: Are you getting enough sleep? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/Features/Sleep/

4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). NCHS data brief: Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016 (No. 288). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf

5 The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016-17 National Survey of Children's Health [Data query]. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey

6 Bloom, S., Kuhlthau, K., Van Cleave, J., Knapp, A. A., Newacheck, P., & Perrin, J. M. (2012). Health care transition for youth with special health care needs. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(3), 213-219.

7 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Asthma and schools. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/asthma/index.htm

8 Rui, P., & Kang, K. (2015). National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2015 Emergency department summary tables [Data set]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhamcs/web_tables/2015_ed_web_tables.pdf

9 Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration. (2018). Results from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Table 9.6B [Data set]. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/cbhsq-reports/NSDUHDetailedTabs2017/NSDUHDetailedTabs2017.pdf

10 Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Adolescent depression: What we know, what we look for, and what we do. Baltimore, MD: Adolescent Depression Awareness Program. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/psychiatry/specialty_areas/moods/adap/docs/adap-booklet_final.pdf

11 National Institute of Mental Health. (2018). Teen depression. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/teen-depression/teendepression-508_150205.pdf

12  Ramtekkar, U. P., Reiersen, A. M., Todorov, A. A., & Todd, R. D. (2010). Sex and age difference in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and diagnoses: Implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry, 49(3), 217-228. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101894/

13 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and psychiatric comorbidity: Functional outcomes in a school-based sample of children. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/adhd-keyfindings-psychiatric-comorbidity-school-children.html

14 Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). (2019). Substance abuse and ADHD. Retrieved from https://chadd.org/for-parents/substance-abuse-and-adhd/

15  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). NCHS data brief: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing of teenagers aged 15-19 in the United States (No. 209). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db209.pdf

16 Goesling, B., Colman, S., Trenholm, C., Terzian, M., & Moore, K. A. (2013). Programs to reduce teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors: A systematic review. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/programs-reduce-teen-pregnancy-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-associated-sexual-risk-behaviors-systematic-review

17 Kahn, N. F., & Halpern, C. T. (2018). Associations between patterns of sexual initiation, sexual partnering, and sexual health outcomes from adolescence to early adulthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior 47(6), 1797-1810.

18 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Youth and tobacco use. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm

19  Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use 1975-2018: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2018.pdf

20 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Surgeon General releases advisory on E-cigarette epidemic among youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2018/12/18/surgeon-general-releases-advisory-e-cigarette-epidemic-among-youth.html 

21 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). E-Cigarette use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Retrieved from https://e-cigarettes.surgeongeneral.gov/documents/2016_SGR_Fact_Sheet_508.pdf

22 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Fact sheets: Binge Drinking. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/binge-drinking.htm

23 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). What you need to know about marijuana use in teens. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/marijuana/factsheets/teens.htm

24 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2018). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 18-5068, NSDUH Series H-53). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/

25 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Teen dating violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/teen-dating-violence.html

26 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2017). Effects of bullying. Retrieved  from http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/effects/

27 Esteban-Cornejo, I., Carlson, J. A., Conway, T. L., Cain, K. L., Saelens, B. E., Frank, L. D., … & Sallis, J. F. (2016). Parental and adolescent perceptions of neighborhood safety related to adolescents’ physical activity in their neighborhood. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 87(2), 191-199. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784762/pdf/nihms903420.pdf

28 Lenhart, C. M., Wiemken, A., Hanlon, A., Perkett, M., & Patterson, F. (2017). Perceived neighborhood safety related to physical activity but not recreational screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescents. BMC Public Health 17, 722-730. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5604293/pdf/12889_2017_Article_4756.pdf

29 Butler, A. M., Kowalkowski. M., Jones, H. A., & Raphael, J. L. (2012). The relationship of reported neighborhood conditions with child mental health. Academic Pediatrics 12(6), 523-531. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3640259/pdf/nihms409805.pdf

 

Content created by Office of Population Affairs
Content last reviewed on October 3, 2019