What are reproductive cancers?
- Reproductive cancers start in the organs related to reproduction (sex).
- The most common reproductive cancers in men are:
- Penile (PEE-nile)—begins in the penis, part of the external genitals.
- Testicular (tes-TIH-kyuh-ler)—begins in the testicles, the two egg-shaped glands near the base of the penis that make sperm.
- Prostate (PROS-tayt)—begins in the prostate, a gland that surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties the bladder).
What are the early symptoms of reproductive cancers?
Each type of reproductive cancer has different symptoms.
- Penile—Redness, discomfort, a sore or a lump on the penis.
- Testicular—Pain, discomfort, a lump or swelling in the testicle, aching in the lower abdomen (belly).
- Prostate— Weak flow of urine, blood in urine, pain in the back, hips, or pelvis (lower belly between the hips), needing to pass urine often.
- It's important to see a health care provider if you have any of these symptoms.
- Sometimes cancer causes no symptoms and is found because of a lab test that is not normal.
Are there tests to screen for reproductive cancers?
- Health care providers use screening tests to find a disease before the person has any symptoms.
- There are no screening tests for testicular or penile cancer. It’s important for men to see a health care provider about any symptoms. Finding cancers early increases the chance of success.
- There are two screening tests for prostate cancer:
- prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test—blood test for PSA, a protein made by the prostate gland. Prostate cancer can increase the PSA level. Conditions that are not cancerous can also increase the PSA.
- Rectal exam—the health care provider inserts a gloved finger into rectum to check for lumps in the prostate
- Health care providers use diagnostic tests to find cancers in people who have symptoms.
- The tests used to find reproductive cancers depend on the type. These tests include
- Lab tests-blood tests that sometimes show signs of cancer.
- Ultrasound test-imaging test that helps doctors "see" inside the body.
- Biopsy-procedure where small pieces of tissue are taken to check for cancer.
National Cancer Institute:
- General information about penile cancer
- What you need to know about prostate cancer
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test
- General information about testicular cancer