Preventing and Reducing Teen Tobacco Use
More deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined., Although tobacco use by adolescents and young adults has declined substantially in the last 40 years, in 2014, almost one in 15 high school seniors was a daily smoker, and almost one in seven had smoked at least once in the previous month. In 2012, cigarette and smokeless tobacco marketing expenditures amounted to about $26 million a day in the United States alone.
Tobacco use remains the number one cause of preventable deaths in the United States. It is critical that efforts to prevent and reduce teen smoking continue, as the stakes could not be higher. On average, smokers die at least 10 years earlier than non-smokers and, every day, more than 1,200 people in the United States die from smoking-related causes. Almost 90% of those who die from smoking-related causes began using tobacco products at or prior to age 18. The Surgeon General estimates that, if all the evidence-based youth anti-tobacco strategies were implemented, smoking among high school students would decline by more than 50 percent by 2020.
Furthermore, adolescents’ use of smoking products is evolving. In 2014 and for the first time in history, more teenagers smoked electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes) than smoked tobacco cigarettes. These products pose a set of new challenges, as their health impact is not yet fully understood.
Strategies and Approaches to Reducing Adolescent Tobacco Use
The Surgeon General’s report Preventing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults summarizes the causes, the solutions, and the latest findings about the epidemic of tobacco use among these groups.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that primary care clinicians provide interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent initiation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents (ages 10-17).
The Community Preventive Services Task Force offers guidance and recommendations on evidence-based approaches to prevent and reduce tobacco use by adolescents. These include:
- Reducing the initiation of tobacco use (such as by increasing the price of tobacco products)
- Increasing tobacco use cessation for smokers and users of other tobacco products (through mass media campaigns and other interventions)
- Restricting minors’ access to tobacco products (through community mobilization and enforcement)
- Reducing exposure to second hand smoke (primarily through smoking bans)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: Fact sheet. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved on February 12, 2016, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/factsheet.html.
Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2014). Use of alcohol, cigarettes, and number of illicit drugs declines among U.S. teens. University of Michigan News Service: Ann Arbor, MI. Retrieved February 12, 2016, from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/data/14data.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Smoking & tobacco use: Tobacco industry marketing. Atlanta, GA: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 12, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/marketing/.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Service. (2012).Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD. Retrieved February 12, 2016, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/.