Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

Teen Births

In 2014, there were 24.2 births for every 1,000 adolescent females ages 15-19, or 249,078 babies born to females in this age group.[1] Nearly 89 percent of these births occurred outside of marriage.[1] The 2014 teen birth rate indicates a  decline of nine percent from 2013 when the birth rate was 26.5 per 1,000.[1] The teen birth rate has declined almost continuously over the past 20 years. In 1991, the U.S. teen birth rate was 61.8 births for every 1,000 adolescent females, compared with 24.2 births for every 1,000 adolescent females in 2014. Still, the U.S. teen birth rate is higher than that of many other developed countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom.[2]

Not all teen births are first births. In 2014, one in six (17 percent) births to 15- to 19-year-olds were to females who already had one or more babies.[1] Avoiding repeat teen births is one of the goals of OAH’s Pregnancy Assistance Fund (PAF) grant program to States and Tribes. Grantees may use PAF funds to help pregnant and parenting teens complete high school or earn postsecondary degrees, as well as to gain access to health care, child care, family housing, and other critical supports. The money can also be used to improve services for pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence and to increase public awareness and education efforts surrounding teen pregnancy prevention, among other activities. Through PAF grants, OAH also supports several public and private organizations working with adolescent males who become young fathers. For more information about the Pregnancy Assistance Fund, look here.

Variations in Teen Birth Rates Across Populations

Teen birth rates differ substantially by age, racial and ethnic group, and region of the country. Most adolescents who give birth are 18 or older; in 2014, 73 percent of all teen births occurred to 18- to 19-year-olds.[1] Birth rates are also higher among Hispanic and black adolescents than among their white counterparts. In 2014, Hispanic adolescent females ages 15-19 had the highest birth rate (38 births per 1,000 adolescent females), followed by black adolescent females (34.9 births per 1,000 adolescent females) and white adolescent females (17.3 births per 1,000 adolescent females) (see Figure 1).[1] Estimates from 2013 data show that 11 percent of adolescent females in the United States will give birth by her 20th birthday, with substantial differences by race/ethnicity: 8 percent of white adolescent females, 16 percent of black adolescent females, and 17 percent of Hispanic adolescent females.[3]

Although Hispanics currently have the highest teen birth rates, they have also had a dramatic recent decline in rates. Since 2007, the teen birth rate has declined by 50% for Hispanics, compared with declines of 44% for blacks and 36% for whites.[1]

Figure 1: Birth rates per 1,000 females ages 15-19, by race/ethnicity, 1990-2014

Teen pregnancy has declined from 59.9 per 1000 females ages 15-19 in 1990 to 24.2 in 2014. Teen pregnancy has declined since 1990 from 100.3 per 1000 females ages 15-19 in Hispanics and 166.2 per 1000 females ages 15-19 in blacks to 38 and 34.9 respectively.  Teen pregnancy has declined at a faster rate for hispanics and blacks than for whites.

See the data »

Table 1: Birth rates per 1,000 females ages 15-19, by race/ethnicity, 1990-2014
Year Collected Total White Black Hispanic
1990 59.9 42.5 116.2 100.3
1991 61.8 43.4 118.2 104.6
1992 60.3 41.7 114.7 103.3
1993 59 40.7 110.5 101.8
1994 58.2 40.4 105.7 101.3
1995 56 39.3 97.2 99.3
1996 53.5 37.6 91.9 94.6
1997 51.3 36 88.3 89.6
1998 50.3 35.3 85.7 87.9
1999 48.8 34.1 81 86.8
2000 47.7 32.6 79.2 87.3
2001 45 30.3 73.1 84.4
2002 42.6 28.6 67.7 80.6
2003 41.1 27.4 63.7 78.4
2004 40.5 26.7 61.8 78.1
2005 39.7 26 59.4 76.5
2006 41.1 26.7 61.9 77.4
2007 41.5 27.2 62 75.3
2008 40.2 26.7 60.4 70.3
2009 37.9 25.7 56.7 63.6
2010 34.3 23.5 51.5 55.7
2011 31.3 21.7 47.3 49.6
2012 29.4 20.5 43.9 46.3
2013 26.5 18.6 39 41.7
2014 24.2 17.3 34.9 38

Substantial geographic variation also exists in adolescent childbearing across the United States. In 2013, the lowest teen birth rates were reported in the Northeast, while rates were highest in states across the southern part of the country (see Figure 2).[1] See how your state compares on birth rates, pregnancy rates, sexual activity, and contraceptive use with OAH’s reproductive health state fact sheets.

Figure 2: Teenage birth rates for 15 – 19 year olds by state, 2014

Teen birth rates have been declining. There are 11 states that had a rate of 30.0 to 39.9 in 2014. 23 states had a rate of 20.0 to 29.9 in 2014.  All other states have a rate of less than 20. U.S. teen birth rate was 24.2 in 2014.

See the data »

Table 2: Teenage birth rates for 15-19 year olds by state, 2014
State Teen birth rate (15-19 year olds) Teen birth rate range
United States 24.2  
Alabama 32 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Alaska 27.8 20.0-29.9 (green)
Arizona 29.9 20.0-29.9 (green)
Arkansas 39.5 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
California 21.1 20.0-29.9 (green)
Colorado 20.3 20.0-29.9 (green)
Connecticut 11.5 Less than 20 (white)
Delaware 20.7 20.0-29.9 (green)
District of Columbia 28.4 20.0-29.9 (green)
Florida 22.5 20.0-29.9 (green)
Georgia 28.4 20.0-29.9 (green)
Hawaii 23.1 20.0-29.9 (green)
Idaho 23.2 20.0-29.9 (green)
Illinois 22.8 20.0-29.9 (green)
Indiana 28 20.0-29.9 (green)
Iowa 19.8 Less than 20 (white)
Kansas 27.6 20.0-29.9 (green)
Kentucky 35.3 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Louisiana 35.8 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Maine 16.5 Less than 20 (white)
Maryland 17.8 Less than 20 (white)
Massachusetts 10.6 Less than 20 (white)
Michigan 21.1 20.0-29.9 (green)
Minnesota 15.5 Less than 20 (white)
Mississippi 38 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Missouri 27.2 20.0-29.9 (green)
Montana 26.4 20.0-29.9 (green)
Nebraska 22.2 20.0-29.9 (green)
Nevada 28.5 20.0-29.9 (green)
New Hampshire 11 Less than 20 (white)
New Jersey 13.1 Less than 20 (white)
New Mexico 37.8 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
New York 16.1 Less than 20 (white)
North Carolina 25.9 20.0-29.9 (green)
North Dakota 23.9 20.0-29.9 (green)
Ohio 25.1 20.0-29.9 (green)
Oklahoma 38.5 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Oregon 20 20.0-29.9 (green)
Pennsylvania 19.3 Less than 20 (white)
Rhode Island 15.8 Less than 20 (white)
South Carolina 28.5 20.0-29.9 (green)
South Dakota 26.2 20.0-29.9 (green)
Tennessee 33 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Texas 37.8 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Utah 19.4 Less than 20 (white)
Vermont 14.2 Less than 20 (white)
Virginia 18.4 Less than 20 (white)
Washington 19.1 Less than 20 (white)
West Virginia 36.6 30.0-39.9 (light blue)
Wisconsin 18 Less than 20 (white)
Wyoming 30.1 30.0-39.9 (light blue)

Teen Pregnancies

The national teen pregnancy rate has declined almost continuously over the last two decades. The teen pregnancy rate includes pregnancies that end in a live birth, as well as those that end in abortion or miscarriage (fetal loss).* Between 1990 and 2010 (the most recent year for which data are available), the teen pregnancy rate declined by 51 percent—from 116.9 to 57.4 pregnancies per 1,000 teen girls.[4] According to recent national data, this decline is due to the combination of an increased percentage of adolescents who are waiting to have sexual intercourse and the increased use of contraceptives by teens.[4],[5]

About 77 percent of teen pregnancies are unplanned. In other words, they are unwanted or occurred “too soon,” according to a national survey of adolescents.[6] In 2010, the majority of pregnancies to adolescent females ages 15-19 in the United States—an estimated 60 percent—ended in a live birth; 15 percent ended in a miscarriage; and 30 percent ended in an abortion. The rate of abortions among adolescents is the lowest since abortion was legalized in 1973 and 66 percent lower than its peak in 1988.[4]

* The teen pregnancy rate is the sum all live births, abortions and miscarriages (or fetal losses) per 1,000 adolescent females ages 15-19 in a given year.

Characteristics Associated with Adolescent Childbearing

Numerous individual, family, and community characteristics have been linked to adolescent childbearing. For example, adolescents who are enrolled in school and engaged in learning (including participating in after-school activities, having positive attitudes toward school, and performing well educationally) are less likely than are other adolescents to have or to father a baby.[7] At the family level, adolescents with mothers who gave birth as teens and/or whose mothers have only a high school degree are more likely to have a baby before age 20 than are teens whose mothers were older at their birth or who attended at least some college. In addition, having lived with both biological parents at age 14 is associated with a lower risk of a teen birth.[8] At the community level, adolescents who live in wealthier neighborhoods with strong levels of employment are less likely to have or to father a baby than are adolescents in neighborhoods in which income and employment opportunities are more limited.[7]

Footnotes »

1
Hamilton, B.E.,  Martin, J.A., Osterman, M.J.K., & Curtin, S. C. (2015). Births: Final Data for 2014. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf.
2
United Nations Statistics Division. (2015). Demographic Yearbook 2013. New York, NY: United Nations. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2013/Table10.pdf.
3
Cook, E. (Unpublished). Percentage of teens who will experience a first birth based on analyses of NCHS Vital Statistics 2013 final birth data. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
4
Kost, K., & Henshaw, S. (2014). U.S. teenage pregnancies, births and abortions, 2010: National trends by age, race and ethnicity: Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends10.pdf.
5
Santelli, J. S., Lindberg, L. D., Finer, L. B., & Singh, S. (2007). Explaining recent declines in adolescent pregnancy in the United States: The contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 150-156.
6
Mosher, W. D., Jones, J., Abma, J.C. (2012). Intended and unintended births in the United States: 1982-2010. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat (55). Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr055.pdf.
7
Kirby, D., & Lepore, G. (2007). Sexual risk and protective factors: Factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing and sexually transmitted disease. Washington, DC: ETR Associates and The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from https://thenationalcampaign.org/sites/default/files/resource-primary-download/protective_factors_full.pdf.
8
Martinez, G., Copen, C. E., & Abma, J. C. (2011). Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Statistics, 23(31). Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_031.pdf.
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Last updated: May 04, 2016